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dc.contributor.author Helfer, Laurence en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2011-06-21T17:22:01Z
dc.date.available 2011-06-21T17:22:01Z
dc.date.issued 2010 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Alter,Karen J.;Helfer,Laurence R.. 2010. Nature or Nurture? Judicial Lawmaking in the European Court of Justice and the Andean Tribunal of Justice. International Organization 64(4): 563-592. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0020-8183 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10161/3973
dc.description.abstract Are international courts power-seeking by nature, expanding the reach and scope of international rules and the courts' authority where permissive conditions allow? does expansionist lawmaking require special nurturing? We investigate the relative influences of nature versus nurture by comparing expansionist lawmaking in the European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the Andean Tribunal of Justice (ATJ), the ECJ's jurisdictional cousin and the third most active international court. We argue that international judges are more likely to become expansionist lawmakers where they are supported by substate interlocutors and compliance constituencies, including government officials, advocacy networks, national judges, and administrative agencies. This comparison of two structurally identical international courts calls into question prevailing explanations of ECJ lawmaking, and it suggests that prevailing scholarship puts too much emphasis on the self-interested power-seeking of judges, the importance of institutional design features, and the preferences of governments to explain lawmaking by international courts. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS en_US
dc.relation.isversionof doi:10.1017/S0020818310000238 en_US
dc.subject dispute resolution en_US
dc.subject legal integration en_US
dc.subject human-rights en_US
dc.subject constitution en_US
dc.subject independence en_US
dc.subject adjudication en_US
dc.subject community en_US
dc.subject backlash en_US
dc.subject lessons en_US
dc.subject union en_US
dc.subject international relations en_US
dc.title Nature or Nurture? Judicial Lawmaking in the European Court of Justice and the Andean Tribunal of Justice en_US
dc.title.alternative en_US
dc.description.version Version of Record en_US
duke.date.pubdate 2010-00-00 en_US
duke.description.endpage 592 en_US
duke.description.issue 4 en_US
duke.description.startpage 563 en_US
duke.description.volume 64 en_US
dc.relation.journal International Organization en_US

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