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dc.contributor.author Inan, US
dc.contributor.author Cummer, SA
dc.contributor.author Marshall, RA
dc.date.accessioned 2011-06-21T17:27:29Z
dc.date.issued 2010-01-01
dc.identifier.citation Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 2010, 115 (6)
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10161/4168
dc.description.abstract Extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) observations have formed the cornerstone of measurement and interpretation of effects of lightning discharges on the overlying upper atmospheric regions, as well as near-Earth space. ELF (0.3-3 kHz) and VLF (3-30 kHz) wave energy released by lightning discharges is often the agent of modification of the lower ionospheric medium that results in the conductivity changes and the excitation of optical emissions that constitute transient luminous events (TLEs). In addition, the resultant ionospheric changes are best (and often uniquely) observable as perturbations of subionospherically propagating VLF signals. In fact, some of the earliest evidence for direct disturbances of the lower ionosphere in association with lightning discharges was obtained in the course of the study of such VLF perturbations. Measurements of the detailed ELF and VLF waveforms of parent lightning discharges that produce TLEs and terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) have also been very fruitful, often revealing properties of such discharges that maximize ionospheric effects, such as generation of intense electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) or removal of large quantities of charge. In this paper, we provide a review of the development of ELF and VLF measurements, both from a historical point of view and from the point of view of their relationship to optical and other observations of ionospheric effects of lightning discharges. Copyright © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.relation.ispartof Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
dc.relation.isversionof 10.1029/2009JA014775
dc.title A survey of ELF and VLF research on lightning-ionosphere interactions and causative discharges
dc.title.alternative en_US
dc.type Journal Article
dc.description.version Version of Record en_US
duke.date.pubdate 2010-6-18 en_US
duke.description.endpage A00E36 en_US
duke.description.issue en_US
duke.description.startpage A00E36 en_US
duke.description.volume 115 en_US
dc.relation.journal Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics en_US
pubs.issue 6
pubs.organisational-group /Duke
pubs.organisational-group /Duke/Pratt School of Engineering
pubs.organisational-group /Duke/Pratt School of Engineering/Electrical and Computer Engineering
pubs.publication-status Published
pubs.volume 115
dc.identifier.eissn 2169-9402

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