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dc.contributor.author Li, Wenjun en_US
dc.contributor.author Ortiz, Gabriel en_US
dc.contributor.author Fournier, Pierre-Edouard en_US
dc.contributor.author Gimenez, Gregory en_US
dc.contributor.author Raoult, Didier en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2011-06-21T17:31:22Z
dc.date.available 2011-06-21T17:31:22Z
dc.date.issued 2010 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Li,Wenjun;Ortiz,Gabriel;Fournier,Pierre-Edouard;Gimenez,Gregory;Reed,David L.;Pittendrigh,Barry;Raoult,Didier. 2010. Genotyping of Human Lice Suggests Multiple Emergences of Body Lice from Local Head Louse Populations. Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases 4(3): e641-e641. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1935-2727 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10161/4480
dc.description.abstract Background: Genetic analyses of human lice have shown that the current taxonomic classification of head lice ( Pediculus humanus capitis) and body lice ( Pediculus humanus humanus) does not reflect their phylogenetic organization. Three phylotypes of head lice A, B and C exist but body lice have been observed only in phylotype A. Head and body lice have different behaviours and only the latter have been involved in outbreaks of infectious diseases including epidemic typhus, trench fever and louse borne recurrent fever. Recent studies suggest that body lice arose several times from head louse populations. Methods and Findings: By introducing a new genotyping technique, sequencing variable intergenic spacers which were selected from louse genomic sequence, we were able to evaluate the genotypic distribution of 207 human lice. Sequence variation of two intergenic spacers, S2 and S5, discriminated the 207 lice into 148 genotypes and sequence variation of another two intergenic spacers, PM1 and PM2, discriminated 174 lice into 77 genotypes. Concatenation of the four intergenic spacers discriminated a panel of 97 lice into 96 genotypes. These intergenic spacer sequence types were relatively specific geographically, and enabled us to identify two clusters in France, one cluster in Central Africa ( where a large body louse outbreak has been observed) and one cluster in Russia. Interestingly, head and body lice were not genetically differentiated. Conclusions: We propose a hypothesis for the emergence of body lice, and suggest that humans with both low hygiene and head louse infestations provide an opportunity for head louse variants, able to ingest a larger blood meal ( a required characteristic of body lice), to colonize clothing. If this hypothesis is ultimately supported, it would help to explain why poor human hygiene often coincides with outbreaks of body lice. Additionally, if head lice act as a reservoir for body lice, and that any social degradation in human populations may allow the formation of new populations of body lice, then head louse populations are potentially a greater threat to humans than previously assumed. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE en_US
dc.relation.isversionof doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000641 en_US
dc.subject pediculus-humanus en_US
dc.subject bartonella-quintana en_US
dc.subject rickettsia-prowazekii en_US
dc.subject molecular evolution en_US
dc.subject sequence alignment en_US
dc.subject epidemic typhus en_US
dc.subject phthiraptera en_US
dc.subject capitis en_US
dc.subject homeless en_US
dc.subject diseases en_US
dc.subject infectious diseases en_US
dc.subject parasitology en_US
dc.subject tropical medicine en_US
dc.title Genotyping of Human Lice Suggests Multiple Emergences of Body Lice from Local Head Louse Populations en_US
dc.title.alternative en_US
dc.description.version Version of Record en_US
duke.date.pubdate 2010-3-0 en_US
duke.description.endpage e641 en_US
duke.description.issue 3 en_US
duke.description.startpage e641 en_US
duke.description.volume 4 en_US
dc.relation.journal Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases en_US

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