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dc.contributor.author Qadir, Manzoor
dc.contributor.author Wichelns, Dennis
dc.contributor.author Raschid-Sally, Liqa
dc.contributor.author McCornick, Peter
dc.contributor.author Drechsel, Pay
dc.contributor.author Bahri, Akissa
dc.contributor.author Minhasf, P.
dc.date.accessioned 2012-11-01T17:57:03Z
dc.date.available 2012-11-01T17:57:03Z
dc.date.issued 2010-04
dc.identifier.citation Qadir, M., D. Wichelns, et al. (2010). "The challenges of wastewater irrigation in developing countries." Agricultural Water Management 97(4): 561-568. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10161/5966
dc.description.abstract The volume of wastewater generated by domestic, industrial and commercial sources has increased with population, urbanization, improved living conditions, and economic development. The productive use of wastewater has also increased, as millions of small-scale farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of developing countries depend on wastewater or wastewater polluted water sources to irrigate high-value edible crops for urban markets, often as they have no alternative sources of irrigation water. Undesirable constituents in wastewater can harm human health and the environment. Hence, wastewater irrigation is an issue of concern to public agencies responsible for maintaining public health and environmental quality. For diverse reasons, many developing countries are still unable to implement comprehensive wastewater treatment programs. Therefore in the near term, risk management and interim solutions are needed to prevent adverse impacts from wastewater irrigation. A combination of source control, and farm-level and post-harvest measures can be used to protect farm workers and consumers. The WHO guidelines revised in 2006 for wastewater use suggest measures beyond the traditional recommendations of producing only industrial or non-edible crops, as in many situations it is impossible to enforce a change in the current cash crop pattern, or provide alternative vegetable supply to urban markets. There are several opportunities for improving wastewater management via improved policies, institutional dialogues and financial mechanisms, which would reduce the risks in agriculture. Effluent standards combined with incentives or enforcement can motivate improvements in water management by household and industrial sectors discharging wastewater from point sources. Segregation of chemical pollutants from urban wastewater facilitates treatment and reduces risk. Strengthening institutional capacity and establishing links between water delivery and sanitation sectors through inter-institutional coordination leads to more efficient management of wastewater and risk reduction. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier Masson en_US
dc.relation.isversionof doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2008.11.004 en_US
dc.subject Wastewater reuse en_US
dc.subject Wastewater irrigation management en_US
dc.subject Wastewater reuse policies en_US
dc.subject Institutional aspects en_US
dc.title The challenges of wastewater irrigation in developing countries en_US
dc.type Article en_US
duke.description.endpage 568 en_US
duke.description.issue 4 en_US
duke.description.startpage 561 en_US
duke.description.volume 97 en_US
dc.relation.journal Agricultural Water Management en_US

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