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dc.contributor.author Adgent, MA
dc.contributor.author Daniels, JL
dc.contributor.author Rogan, WJ
dc.contributor.author Adair, L
dc.contributor.author Edwards, LJ
dc.contributor.author Westreich, D
dc.contributor.author Maisonet, M
dc.contributor.author Marcus, M
dc.coverage.spatial England
dc.date.accessioned 2012-11-16T18:49:14Z
dc.date.issued 2012-03
dc.identifier http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22324503
dc.identifier.citation Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol, 2012, 26 (2), pp. 163 - 175
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10161/5992
dc.description.abstract This study examines the timing of menarche in relation to infant-feeding methods, specifically addressing the potential effects of soy isoflavone exposure through soy-based infant feeding. Subjects were participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and their children have been followed prospectively. Early-life feeding regimes, categorised as primarily breast, early formula, early soy and late soy, were defined using infant-feeding questionnaires administered during infancy. For this analysis, age at menarche was assessed using questionnaires administered approximately annually between ages 8 and 14.5. Eligible subjects were limited to term, singleton, White females. We used Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models to assess age at menarche and risk of menarche over the study period. The present analysis included 2920 girls. Approximately 2% of mothers reported that soy products were introduced into the infant diet at or before 4 months of age (early soy). The median age at menarche [interquartile range (IQR)] in the study sample was 153 months [144-163], approximately 12.8 years. The median age at menarche among early soy-fed girls was 149 months (12.4 years) [IQR, 140-159]. Compared with girls fed non-soy-based infant formula or milk (early formula), early soy-fed girls were at 25% higher risk of menarche throughout the course of follow-up (hazard ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval 0.92, 1.71]). Our results also suggest that girls fed soy products in early infancy may have an increased risk of menarche specifically in early adolescence. These findings may be the observable manifestation of mild endocrine-disrupting effects of soy isoflavone exposure. However, our study is limited by few soy-exposed subjects and is not designed to assess biological mechanisms. Because soy formula use is common in some populations, this subtle association with menarche warrants more in-depth evaluation in future studies.
dc.format.extent 163 - 175
dc.language ENG
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.relation.ispartof Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
dc.relation.isversionof 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2011.01244.x
dc.subject Adolescent
dc.subject Age Factors
dc.subject Child
dc.subject Endocrine Disruptors
dc.subject European Continental Ancestry Group
dc.subject Female
dc.subject Great Britain
dc.subject Humans
dc.subject Infant
dc.subject Infant Formula
dc.subject Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
dc.subject Isoflavones
dc.subject Kaplan-Meier Estimate
dc.subject Longitudinal Studies
dc.subject Male
dc.subject Menarche
dc.subject Pregnancy
dc.subject Prospective Studies
dc.subject Risk Factors
dc.subject Soy Milk
dc.subject Surveys and Questionnaires
dc.subject Time Factors
dc.title Early-life soy exposure and age at menarche.
dc.type Journal Article
duke.description.endpage 175 en_US
duke.description.issue 2 en_US
duke.description.startpage 163 en_US
duke.description.volume 26 en_US
dc.relation.journal Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology en_US
pubs.author-url http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22324503
pubs.issue 2
pubs.organisational-group /Duke
pubs.organisational-group /Duke/Faculty
pubs.publication-status Published
pubs.volume 26
dc.identifier.eissn 1365-3016

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