# Browsing by Author "Chandrasekharan, Shailesh"

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Item Open Access Baryon bag simulation of QCD in the strong coupling limit(2019-10-21) Chandrasekharan, Shailesh; Orasch, Oliver; Gattringer, Christof; Torek, PascalWe explore the possibility of a simulation of strong coupling QCD in terms of so-called baryon bags. In this form the known representation in terms of monomers, dimers and baryon loops is reorganized such that the baryon contributions are collected in space time domains referred to as baryon bags. Within the bags three quarks propagate coherently as a baryon that is described by a free fermion, whereas the rest of the lattice is solely filled with interacting meson terms, i.e., quark and diquark monomers and dimers. We perform a simulation directly in the baryon bag language using a newly developed worm update and show first results in two dimensions.Item Open Access Exploring Quantum Field Theories with Qubit Lattice Models(2020) Singh, HershThe framework of quantum field theory (QFT) underlies our modern understanding of both particle physics and condensed matter physics. Despite its importance, precise quantitative calculations in strongly-coupled theories in QFTs have generally only been possible through non-perturbative lattice Monte Carlo (MC) methods. Traditionally, such lattice MC methods proceed by starting from a lattice regularization of the continuum QFT of interest, which has the same (possibly infinite dimensional) local Hilbert space at each lattice site as the continuum QFT. In this thesis, we explore an alternative regularization where the local Hilbert space is also replaced by a smaller finite dimensional Hilbert space. Motivated by the appeal of such models for near-term quantum computers, we dub this approach qubit regularization. Using this approach, in this thesis, we present three main results. First, we develop a qubit-regularization for the O(N) nonlinear sigma model (NLSM) in D $\geq$ 3 spacetime dimensions. We show using numerical lattice calculations that the O(N ) qubit model lies in the correct universality class for N = 2, 4, 6, 8, and reproduces the universal physics of the O(N) Wilson-Fisher (WF) fixed point in D = 3 spacetime dimensions by computing some well-known critical exponents. Next, we explore sectors of large global charges of the O(N) WF conformal field theory (CFT) using the O(N) qubit model. This allows us to test the predictions of a recently proposed large-charge effective field theory (EFT) and extract the two leading low-energy constants (LECs) in the EFT. Performing computations for N = 2, 4, 6, 8, we are also able to quantitatively test predictions of a recent large-N analysis in the large-charge sectors. Finally, we show that our qubit approach can also be used to study the few-body physics of non-relativistic particles. In particular, we consider a system of two species of mass-imbalanced fermions in $1 + 1$ dimensions. We compute the ground state energies for a range of mass-imbalances and interaction strengths, and uncover some problems with recent results obtained from the Complex Langevin (CL) method for the same system.

Item Open Access Fermion Bag Approach for Hamiltonian Lattice Field Theories(2018) Huffman, EmilieUnderstanding the critical behavior near quantum critical points for strongly correlated quantum many-body systems remains intractable for the vast majority of scenarios. Challenges involve determining if a quantum phase transition is first- or second-order, and finding the critical exponents for second-order phase transitions. Learning about where second-order phase transitions occur and determining their critical exponents is particularly interesting, because each new second-order phase transition defines a new quantum field theory.

Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods are one class of techniques that, when applicable, offer reliable ways to extract the nonperturbative physics near strongly coupled quantum critical points. However, there are two formidable bottlenecks to the applicability of QMC: (1) the sign problem and (2) algorithmic update inefficiencies. In this thesis, I overcome both these difficulties for a class of problems by extending the fermion bag approach recently developed by Shailesh Chandrasekharan to the Hamiltonian formalism and by demonstrating progress using the example of a specific quantum system known as the $t$-$V$ model, which exhibits a transition from a semimetal to an insulator phase for a single flavor of four-component Dirac fermions.

I adapt the fermion bag approach, which was originally developed in the context of Lagrangian lattice field theories, to be applicable within the Hamiltonian formalism, and demonstrate its success in two ways: first, through solutions to new sign problems, and second, through the development of new efficient QMC algorithms. In addressing the first point, I present a solution to the sign problem for the $t$-$V$ model. While the $t$-$V$ model is the simplest Gross-Neveu model of the chiral Ising universality class, the specter of the sign problem previously prevented its simulation with QMC for 30 years, and my solution initiated the first QMC studies for this model. The solution is then extended to many other Hamiltonian models within a class that involves fermions interacting with quantum spins. Some of these models contain an interesting quantum phase transition between a massless/semimetal phase to a massive/insulator phase in the so called Gross-Neveu universality class. Thus, the new solutions to the sign problem allow for the use of the QMC method to study these universality classes.

The second point is addressed through the construction of a Hamiltonian fermion bag algorithm. The algorithm is then used to compute the critical exponents for the second-order phase transition in the $t$-$V$ model. By pushing the calculations to significantly larger lattice sizes than previous recent computations ($64^2$ sites versus $24^2$ sites), I am able to compute the critical exponents more reliably here compared to earlier work. I show that the inclusion of these larger lattices causes a significant shift in the values of the critical exponents that was not evident for the smaller lattices. This shift puts the critical exponent values in closer agreement with continuum $4-\epsilon$ expansion calculations. The largest lattice sizes of $64^2$ at a comparably low temperature are reachable due to efficiency gains from this Hamiltonian fermion bag algorithm. The two independent critical exponents I find, which completely characterize the phase transition, are $\eta=.51(3)$ and $\nu=.89(1)$, compared to previous work that had lower values for these exponents. The finite size scaling fit is excellent with a $\chi^2/DOF=.90$, showing strong evidence for a second-order critical phase transition, and hence a non-perturbative QFT can be defined at the critical point.

Item Open Access Fermion Mass Generation without Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking(2016) Ayyar, VenkiteshThe conventional mechanism of fermion mass generation in the Standard Model involves Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking (SSB). In this thesis, we study an alternate mechanism for the generation of fermion masses that does not require SSB, in the context of lattice field theories. Being inherently strongly coupled, this mechanism requires a non-perturbative approach like the lattice approach.

In order to explore this mechanism, we study a simple lattice model with a four-fermion interaction that has massless fermions at weak couplings and massive fermions at strong couplings, but without any spontaneous symmetry breaking. Prior work on this type of mass generation mechanism in 4D, was done long ago using either mean-field theory or Monte-Carlo calculations on small lattices. In this thesis, we have developed a new computational approach that enables us to perform large scale quantum Monte-Carlo calculations to study the phase structure of this theory. In 4D, our results confirm prior results, but differ in some quantitative details of the phase diagram. In contrast, in 3D, we discover a new second order critical point using calculations on lattices up to size $ 60^3$. Such large scale calculations are unprecedented. The presence of the critical point implies the existence of an alternate mechanism of fermion mass generation without any SSB, that could be of interest in continuum quantum field theory.

Item Open Access Phase transitions of S=1 spinor condensates in an optical lattice(Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 2009-12-09) Podolsky, Daniel; Chandrasekharan, Shailesh; Vishwanath, AshvinWe study the phase diagram of spin-one polar condensates in a two-dimensional optical lattice with magnetic anisotropy. We show that the topological binding of vorticity to nematic disclinations allows for a rich variety of phase transitions. These include Kosterlitz-Thouless-like transitions with a superfluid stiffness jump that can be experimentally tuned to take a continuous set of values, and a cascaded Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, characterized by two divergent length scales. For higher integer spin bosons S, the thermal phase transition out of the planar polar phase is strongly affected by the parity of S. © 2009 The American Physical Society.Item Open Access Quantum Critical Phenomena of Relativistic Fermions in 1+1d and 2+1d(2022) Liu, HanqingIn this dissertation, we study the phase structures and the quantum critical phenomena of relativistic lattice fermions with $\O(2N_f)$ symmetry in one and two spatial dimensions, motivated by the ability to perform efficient Monte Carlo simulations. Close to a quantum critical point, physics is universal and can be described by continuum quantum field theories. We perform a perturbative analysis of all independent four-fermion interactions allowed by the $\O(2N_f)$ symmetry near the free-fermion fixed point. We then analyze the resulting continuum field theories using various techniques. In one spatial dimension, we use the powerful tools from conformal field theory and non-abelian bosonization to understand the renormalization group flows, the correlation functions, and the spectra. In the case of $N_f=2$, we find that by tuning a Hubbard coupling, our model undergoes a second-order phase transition, which can be described by an $\SU(2)_1$ Wess-Zumino-Witten model perturbed by a marginal coupling. We confirm these results using the meron-cluster algorithm, and locate the critical point precisely using exact diagonalization based on the spectrum of the Wess-Zumino-Witten model. In two spatial dimensions, we analyze the model using $\varepsilon$ expansion, large $N_f$ expansion and effective potential methods. In the case of $N_f=2$, we find a novel critical point where the anti-ferromagnetic order and superconducting-CDW order become simultaneously quantum critical, which seems to have been missed in literature. We compare these predictions with the numerical results obtained using the fermion-bag algorithm by Emilie Huffman.

Item Open Access Solution to new sign problems with Hamiltonian Lattice Fermions(PoS (LATTICE 2014) 058) Huffman, Emilie; Chandrasekharan, ShaileshWe present a solution to the sign problem in a class of particle-hole symmetric Hamiltonian lattice fermion models on bipartite lattices using the idea of fermion bags. The solution remains valid when the particle-hole symmetry is broken through a staggered chemical potential term. This solution allows, for the first time, simulations of some massless four-fermion models with minimal fermion doubling and with an odd number of fermion flavors using ultra-local actions. One can thus study a variety of quantum phase transitions that have remained unexplored so far due to sign problems.