# Browsing by Author "Tornow, Werner"

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Item Open Access Double-Beta Decay of 96Zr and Double-Electron Capture of 156Dy to Excited Final States(2015) Finch, SeanTwo separate experimental searches for second-order weak nuclear decays to excited final states were conducted. Both experiments were carried out at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility to provide shielding from cosmic rays. The first search is for the two-neutrino double-beta decay of 96Zr to excited final states of the daughter nucleus, 96Mo. As a by product of this experiment, the beta decay of 96Zr was also investigated. Two coaxial high-purity germanium detectors were used in coincidence to detect gamma rays produced by the daughter nucleus as it de-excited to the ground state. After collecting 1.92 years of data with 17.91 g of enriched 96Zr, half-life limits at the level of 10^20 yr were produced. Measurements of this decay are important to test neutrinoless double-beta decay nuclear matrix element calculations, which are necessary to extract the neutrino mass from a measurement of the neutrinoless double-beta decay half-life.

The second experiment is a search for the resonantly-enhanced neutrinoless double-electron capture decay of 156Dy to excited states in 156Gd. Double-electron capture is a possible experimental alternative to neutrinoless-double beta decay, which could distinguish the Dirac or Majorana nature of the neutrino. Two clover high-purity germanium detectors were used in coincidence to investigate the decay. A 213.5 mg enriched 156Dy sample was observed for 0.635 year, producing half-life limits of 10^17 yr. The limits produced by both of these experiments are currently the most stringent limits available for these decays.

Item Open Access Double-Beta Decay of 150Nd to Excited Final States(2010) Kidd, Mary FrancesAn experimental study of the two-neutrino double-beta (2νββ) decay of 150Nd to various excited final states of 150Sm was performed at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). Such data provide important checks for theoretical models used to predict 0νββ decay half lives.

The measurement was performed at the recently established Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) in Ripplemeade, Virginia using the TUNL-ITEP double-beta decay setup. In this setup, two high-purity germanium detectors were operated in coincidence to detect the deexcitation gamma rays of the daughter nucleus. This coincidence technique, along with the location underground, provides a considerable reduction in background in the regions of interest.

This study yields the first results from KURF and the first detection of the

coincidence gamma rays from the 0+

_{1}excited state of 150Sm. These gamma rayshave energies of 334.0 keV and 406.5 keV, and are emitted in coincidence through a 0+

_{1}→2+_{1}→0+_{gs}transition. The enriched Nd_{2}O_{3}sample obtained from Oak RidgeNational Laboratory consists of 40.13 g 150Nd. This sample was observed for 391 days, producing 29 raw events in the region of interest. This count rate gives a half life of T

_{1/2}= (0.72+0.36_{−0.18}± 0.04(syst.)) × 1020 years, which agrees within error withanother recent measurement, in which only the single deexcitation gamma rays were detected (i.e., no coincidence was employed). Lower limits were also obtained for decays to higher excited final states.

Item Open Access Entropy production and equilibration in Yang-Mills quantum mechanics(2011) Tsai, Hung-MingEntropy production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is an important physical quantity for studying the equilibration and thermalization of hot matters of quantumchromodynamics (QCD). To formulate a nontrivial definition of entropy for an isolated quantum system, a certain kind of coarse graining may be applied so that the entropy for this isolated quantum system depends on time explicitly. The Husimi distribution, which is a coarse grained distribution in the phase space, is a suitable candidate for this approach. We proposed a general and systematic method of solving the equation of motion of the Husimi distribution for an isolated quantum system. The Husimi distribution is positive (semi-)definite all over the phase space. In this method, we assume the Husimi distribution is composed of a large number of Gaussian test functions. The equation of motion of the Husimi distribution, formulated as a partial differential equation, can be transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations for the centers and the widths of these Gaussian test functions. We numerically solve the system of ordinary differential equations for the centers and the widths of these test functions to obtain the Husimi distribution asa function of time. To ensure the numerical solutions of the trajectories of the test particles preserve physical conservation laws, we obtain a constant of motion for the quantum system. We constructed a coarse grained Hamiltonian whose expectation value is exactly conserved. The conservation of the coarse grained energy confirms the validity of this method. Moreover, we calculated the time evolution of the coarse grained entropy for a model system (Yang-Mills quantum mechanics). Yang-Mills quantum mechanics is a quantum system whose classical correspondence possesses chaotic behaviors. The numerical results revealed that the coarse grained entropy for Yang-Mills quantum mechanics saturates to a value that coincides with the micro-canonical entropy corresponding to the energy of the system. Our results confirmed the validity of the framework of first-principle evaluation of the coarse grained entropy growth rate. We show that, in the energy regime under study, the relaxation time for the entropy production in Yang-Mills quantum mechanics is approximately the same as the characteristic time of the system, indicating fast equilibration of the system. Fast equilibration of Yang-Mills quantum mechanics is consistent to current understanding of fast equilibration of hot QCD matter in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.Item Open Access Measurements of the Analyzing Power of Neutron-Helium-3 Elastic Scattering Between 1.60 and 5.54 MeV(2012) Esterline, JamesAn experiment measuring the analyzing power A

_{y}(θ) for neutron–helium-3 (n-3He) elastic scattering over broad angular distributions for a range of incident neutron energies from 1.60 to 5.54 MeV has been conducted at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. These measurements represent an effort to resolve the long-standing discrepancy between experiment and theory in low-energy three-nucleon analyzing powers, through the evaluation of analyzing powers in the four-nucleon systems, which are expected to exhibit sensitivities not accessible with fewer nucleons. The present work is described in terms of the experimental setup and data reduction techniques; a comparison of the results with rigorous calculations using both nucleon-nucleon and, as recently has become available, three-nucleon potential models is presented. While a discrepancy between calculation and measurement was observed, at low energies substantially better agreement was achieved than in related measurements of the proton–helium-3 (p-3He) analyzing power, suggesting a sizeable dependence on isospin in the four-nucleon systems.Item Open Access Neutron-Induced Partial Gamma-Ray Cross-Section Measurements on Uranium(2008-08-07) Hutcheson, Anthony LloydPrecision measurements of 238U(n,n'g) and 235,238U(n,2ng) partial cross sections have been performed at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to improve crucial data for the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Stockpile Stewardship Program. Accurate neutron-induced reaction cross-section data are required for many practical applications, including nuclear energy and reactor technology, nuclear transmutation, and explosive nuclear devices. Due to the cessation of underground nuclear testing in the early 1990s, understanding of the performance of nuclear devices is increasingly dependent on precise model calculations which are, in turn, themselves reliant on accurate reaction data to serve as benchmarks for model codes. Direct measurement of (n,n') and (n,2n) reaction cross sections for uranium is extremely difficult due to large neutron background from fission and very close nuclear level spacing. Previous direct measurements of the cross sections are incomplete and/or discrepant over the energy range of interest. However, the (n,n'g) and (n,2ng) partial gamma-ray cross-section data obtained in the present work can be combined with model calculations to infer total (n,n') and (n,2n) reaction-channel cross sections.

A pulsed and monoenergetic neutron beam was used in combination with high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy to measure these partial cross sections for incident neutron energies between 5 and 14 MeV. Gamma-ray yields were measured with high-purity germanium (HPGe) clover and planar detectors. Neutron fluxes were determined from the well-measured 2+ -> 0+ transition in 56Fe to be on the order of 10^4 n/cm^2/s. Detector efficiency and attenuation of gamma rays in the target were simulated using the MCNPX Monte-Carlo radiation transport code.

Measured partial cross sections were compared with previous measurements and calculations from GNASH and TALYS Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model codes. Results are generally in good agreement with existing data and provide cross-section data for transitions in energy regions where none previously existed. Total reaction-channel cross sections are inferred from statistical-model calculations and compared with existing direct measurement data.