# Browsing by Subject "Aerospace engineering"

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Item Open Access A General-Purpose Simulator for Evaluating Astronaut Radiation Exposure(2021) Houri, Jordan MeirPurpose: Current Monte Carlo simulations modeling space radiation exposure typically use simplistic human phantoms with low anatomical detail and minimal variability in physical characteristics. This thesis describes the development of a GEANT4-based simulation framework (EVEREST – Evaluation of Variable-Environment Radiation Exposure during Space Travel) that incorporates highly realistic and diverse 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) digital phantoms, combined with advanced NASA models of planetary atmospheres, spaceflight trajectories, and space radiation spectra, to evaluate radiation exposure in interplanetary missions and on planetary habitats.

Methods: Galactic cosmic radiation spectra as a function of time and radial distance from the Sun were modeled using the Badhwar-O’Neill 2020 model, while the Van Allen belt spectra were modeled using the AE-8/AP-8 models, and solar particle event spectra could be selected from historical data. The magnetic field input to the AE-8/AP-8 model was generated using the 13th generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field. Planetary atmospheres were modeled using NASA Global Reference Atmospheric Models, which provide mean atmospheric data for any altitude, latitude, longitude, and time, and the effect of Earth’s magnetic field was accounted for using a geomagnetic cutoff rigidity algorithm. Planetary orbits, trajectories, and relative positions of objects in the Solar System were determined using the NAIF SPICE observation geometry information system. Finally, highly detailed extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) digital phantoms were integrated into EVEREST in order to accurately model radiation exposure to individual organs. XCAT phantoms model over 100 segmented structures, range in age from neonate to 78 years, and cover various combinations of height, weight, and BMI. The EVEREST framework itself was designed using a novel lookup table method, in which different stages of particle propagation were divided into separate simulations, which are then convolved in post-processing.

Results: EVEREST was validated against personal radiation dosimeter data collected by the lunar module pilot on the Apollo 15 mission and also flux data from the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD). Simulation results were found to agree very well with dosimeter readings by the Apollo 15 command module pilot. Comparison of Martian surface particle fluxes simulated by EVEREST to RAD data demonstrated an agreement to within an order of magnitude, with the best agreement seen for protons, He4, Z=6-8, Z=14-24, and Z>24. Finally, as a proof of concept, EVEREST was used to evaluate radiation exposure to a population of eight XCAT phantoms (3 adult and 1 pediatric, male and female) under three different nominal shielding configurations on the surface of Mars (unshielded, 50 cm thick ice, and 50 cm thick Martian regolith) at four different timepoints during the day (12 am, 6 am, 12 pm, and 6 pm). Using the federal yearly occupational dose limit of 50 mSv (effective dose) as a metric, it was found that the phantoms evaluated would reach this limit within 70.9 – 83.8 days unshielded, 139.2 – 161.2 days with 50 cm ice shielding, and 188.1 – 235.7 days with 50 cm Martian regolith shielding, if terrestrial radiation protection standards were to be applied. The results revealed that the brain receives one of the highest organ doses in the body and that unshielded radiation exposure is lowest at midnight when analyzed across all phantoms. Based on these findings, it is recommended that extra care be taken to provide additional radiation shielding in astronauts’ helmets and that extended forays outside of the habitat be planned for late evening to reduce the biological impact of radiation exposure.

Conclusion: EVEREST is a tested and validated framework for accurate estimation of total body and organ dose in space. EVEREST’s geometric versatility makes it ideal for evaluating doses to diverse populations of XCAT phantoms within different types of planetary habitats and spacecraft, enabling optimization of mission planning with respect to radiation exposure in the near future. The model has currently been validated for Lunar and Martian missions, and the framework can be applied to any space travel mission or planetary mission where the atmospheric models for that planet are available.

Item Open Access A New Approach to Model Order Reduction of the Navier-Stokes Equations(2012) Balajewicz, MaciejA new method of stabilizing low-order, proper orthogonal decomposition based reduced-order models of the Navier Stokes equations is proposed. Unlike traditional approaches, this method does not rely on empirical turbulence modeling or modification of the Navier-Stokes equations. It provides spatial basis functions different from the usual proper orthogonal decomposition basis function in that, in addition to optimally representing the solution, the new proposed basis functions also provide stable reduced-order models. The proposed approach is illustrated with two test cases: two-dimensional flow inside a square lid-driven cavity and a two-dimensional mixing layer.

Item Open Access A New Hybrid Free-Wake Model for Wind Turbine Aerodynamics with Application to Wake Steering(2017) Su, KeyeWind energy has emerged as one of the most promising and rapidly growing renewable energy technologies in the United States and over the world. The offshore wind energy is of special interest because it has more consistent and faster wind speed, and is usually close to large population areas that are along the coast. However, wake shielding on offshore wind farms substantially reduces the efficiency of downstream wind turbines due to the interaction with the energy-depleted wakes from upwind turbines. This research considers a method to mitigate the wake shielding effect by tilting the turbine axes upward, which causes streamwise vorticity in the near wake so that the energy depleted wakes transport upward alleviating shielding, and pumping more energetic fluid into downstream turbines.

The wake simulations in this research employ a specially developed hybrid free-wake method for wind turbine wakes, that utilizes Vortex Lattice Method (VLM) for near wake representation with appropriate stall and unsteady models, and Constant Circulation Contours Method (CCCM) for turbine far wake representation with a large degree of downwind vorticity diffusion. This approach has been implemented to capture the natural behavior of multi-filament multi-blade complex turbine wakes in relatively short computation time, with the capability to simulate wake interaction with downstream turbines. It is validated through comparison to two wind tunnel tests, NREL/NASA-Ames Wind Tunnel Test and MEXICO, and two turbine wake numerical models, BEM and QBlade.

The wake steering effect for tilted turbines is verified and the degree of effectiveness is assessed. Detailed turbine wake structure is studied to obtain insights into how to strengthen the steering effect and decrease wake velocity deficit. Inline two turbine simulations where one turbine operates in the wake of the other have been performed to assess the advantage of wake steering in power generation of a system of turbines. Beyond the single rotor tilted turbine, an intermeshed rotor wind turbine configuration, consisting of two partially overlapping counter-rotating rotors, has been studied to assess its potential to strength wake steering effect and to intensify wake deficit recovery. These two turbine configurations are compared along with a discussion of potential advantages and challenges. Several model refinements for more robust turbine wake simulation are under development or considered as future research goals.

Item Open Access A Nonlinear Harmonic Balance Solver for an Implicit CFD Code: OVERFLOW 2(2009) Custer, Chad H.A National Aeronautics and Space Administration computational fluid dynamics code, OVERFLOW 2, was modified to utilize a harmonic balance solution method. This modification allows for the direct calculation of the nonlinear frequency-domain solution of a periodic, unsteady flow while avoiding the time consuming calculation of long physical transients that arise in aeroelastic applications.

With the usual implementation of this harmonic balance method, converting an implicit flow solver from a time marching solution method to a harmonic balance solution method results in an unstable numerical scheme. However, a relatively simple and computationally inexpensive stabilization technique has been developed and is utilized. With this stabilization technique, it is possible to convert an existing implicit time-domain solver to a nonlinear frequency-domain method with minimal modifications to the existing code.

This new frequency-domain version of OVERFLOW 2 utilizes the many features of the original code, such as various discretization methods and several turbulence models. The use of Chimera overset grids in OVERFLOW 2 requires care when implemented in the frequency-domain. This research presents a harmonic balance version of OVERFLOW 2 that is capable of solving on overset grids for sufficiently small unsteady amplitudes.

Item Open Access A Theoretical and Computational Study of Limit Cycle Oscillations in High Performance Aircraft(2015) Padmanabhan, Madhusudan AHigh performance fighter aircraft such as the F-16 experience aeroelastic Limit Cycle Oscillations (LCO) when they carry certain combinations of under-wing stores. This `store-induced LCO' causes serious problems including airframe fatigue, pilot discomfort and loss of operational effectiveness. The usual response has been to restrict the stores carriage envelope based on flight test experience, and accept the accompanying reduction in mission performance.

Although several nonlinear mechanisms - structural as well as aerodynamic, have been proposed to explain the LCO phenomenon, their roles are not well understood. Consequently, existing models are unable to predict accurately AND reliably the most critical LCO properties, namely onset speed and response level. On the other hand, the more accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based time marching methodology yields results at much greater expense and time. Clearly, there is a critical need to establish methods that are more rapid while providing accurate predictions more in line with flight test results than at present. Such a capability will also aid in future aircraft design and usage.

This work was undertaken to develop a better understanding of nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena, and their relation to classical flutter and divergence, with a particular focus on store-induced LCO in high performance fighter aircraft. The following systems were studied: (1) a `simple' wing with a flexible and nonlinear root attachment, (2) a `generic' wing with a flexible and nonlinear wing-store attachment and (3) the F-16 aircraft, again with nonlinear wing-store attachments.

While structural nonlinearity was present in all cases, steady flow aerodynamic nonlinearity was also included in the F-16 case by the use of a Computational Fluid Dynamics model based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations. However, dynamic linearization of the CFD model was done for the present computations. The computationally efficient Harmonic Balance (HB) nonlinear solution technique was a key component of this work, with time marching simulations and closed form solutions being used selectively to confirm the findings of the HB solutions. The simple wing and the generic wing were both modeled as linear beam-rods whose displacements were represented using the primitive modes method. The wing aerodynamic model was linear (quasi-steady for the simple wing and based on the Vortex Lattice Method for the generic wing), and the store aerodynamics were omitted.

The presence of a cubic restoring force (of hardening or softening type, in stiffness or in damping) at the root of the simple wing led to several interesting results and insights. Next, various nonlinear mechanisms including cubic restoring force, freeplay and friction were introduced at the wing-store attachment of the generic wing and these led to a still greater variety in behavior. General relationships were established between the type of nonlinearity and the nature of the resulting response, and they proved very useful for tailoring the F-16 study and interpreting its results.

The Air Force Seek Eagle Office/Air Force Research Laboratory provided a modal structural model of an LCO-prone store configuration of the F-16 aircraft with stores included. In order to investigate a range of stores attachment configurations, the analysis required modification of the stiffness and damping of the wing-store attachment. Since the Finite Element model of the wing and store structure was not available, the modification was achieved by subtracting the store and adding it back with the necessary changes to the store or attachment using a dynamic decoupling/coupling technique. The modified models were subjected to flutter/LCO analysis using the Duke Harmonic Balance CFD RANS solver, and the resulting flutter boundaries were used in combination with the HB method to derive LCO responses due to the wing-store attachment nonlinearity.

Comparisons were made between the simulation results and the F-16 flight test LCO data. While multiple sources of nonlinearity are probably responsible for the wide range of observed LCO behavior, it was concluded that cubic softening stiffness and positive cubic damping were the more likely structural mechanisms causing LCO, in addition to nonlinear aerodynamics.

Item Open Access Aerodynamic Optimization of Helicopter Rotors using a Harmonic Balance Lifting Surface Technique(2018) Tedesco, Matthew BraxtonThis thesis concerns the optimization of the aerodynamic performance of conventional helicopter rotors, given a set of design variables to control the rotor's pitching angle, twist and chord distributions. Two models are presented for use. The lifting line model is a vortex lattice model that uses assumptions on the size and shape of the blade to simplify the model, but is unable to account for unsteady and small aspect ratio effects. The lifting surface model removes these assumptions and allows for a wider variety of accurate solutions, at the cost of overall computational complexity. The lifting surface model is chosen for analysis, and then condensed using static condensation and harmonic balance. The final system is discretized and pertinent values of power, force, and moment calculated using Kelvin's theorem and the unsteady Bernoulli equation. This system is then optimized in one of two ways: using a direct linear solve if possible, or the open source package IPOPT where necessary. The results of single-point and multi-point optimization demonstrate for low speed forward flight, the lifting line model is sufficient for modeling purposes. As the speed of the rotor increases, more unsteady effects become prominent in the system, and therefore the lifting surface model becomes more necessary. When conducting a chord optimization on the rotor, hysteresis effects and local minima are calculated for the non-linear optimization. The global minima within the set of captured local minima can be found through simple data visualization, and the global minima is confirmed to have similar behavior to the results of lifting line; a large spike in induced power at a critical advance ratio, with a sharp decline in induced power as the rotor flies faster. Within the realm of practical forward flight speeds of a conventional rotor, smooth, continuous results are demonstrated.

Item Open Access Aeroelastic and Flight Dynamics Analysis of Folding Wing Systems(2013) Wang, IvanThis dissertation explores the aeroelastic stability of a folding wing using both theoretical and experimental methods. The theoretical model is based on the existing clamped-wing aeroelastic model that uses beam theory structural dynamics and strip theory aerodynamics. A higher-fidelity theoretical model was created by adding several improvements to the existing model, namely a structural model that uses ANSYS for individual wing segment modes and an unsteady vortex lattice aerodynamic model. The comparison with the lower-fidelity model shows that the higher-fidelity model typical provides better agreement between theory and experiment, but the predicted system behavior in general does not change, reinforcing the effectiveness of the low-fidelity model for preliminary design of folding wings. The present work also conducted more detailed aeroelastic analyses of three-segment folding wings, and in particular considers the Lockheed-type configurations to understand the existence of sudden changes in predicted aeroelastic behavior with varying fold angle for certain configurations. These phenomena were observed in carefully conducted experiments, and nonlinearities - structural and geometry - were shown to suppress the phenomena. Next, new experimental models with better manufacturing tolerances are designed to be tested in the Duke University Wind Tunnel. The testing focused on various configurations of three-segment folding wings in order to obtain higher quality data. Next, the theoretical model was further improved by adding aircraft longitudinal degrees of freedom such that the aeroelastic model may predict the instabilities for the entire aircraft and not just a clamped wing. The theoretical results show that the flutter instabilities typically occur at a higher air speed due to greater frequency separation between modes for the aircraft system than a clamped wing system, but the divergence instabilities occur at a lower air speed. Lastly, additional experimental models were designed such that the wing segments may be rotated while the system is in the wind tunnel. The fold angles were changed during wind tunnel testing, and new test data on wing response during those transients were collected during these experiments.

Item Open Access Aeroelastic Modeling of Blade Vibration and its Effect on the Trim and Optimal Performance of Helicopter Rotors using a Harmonic Balance Approach(2020) Tedesco, MatthewThis dissertation concerns the optimization of the aeroelastic performance of conventional

helicopter rotors, considering various design variables such cyclic and higher

harmonic controls. A nite element model is introduced to model the structural

eects of the blade, and a coupled induced velocity/projected force model is used

to couple this structural model to the aerodynamic model constructed in previous

works. The system is then optimized using two separate objective functions: minimum

power and minimum vibrational loading at the hub. The model is validated

against several theoretical and experimental models, and good agreement is demonstrated

in each case. Results of the rotor in forward

ight demonstrate for realistic

advance ratios the original lifting surface model is sucient for modeling normalized

induced power. Through use of the dynamics model the vibrational loading minimization

is shown to be extremely signicant, especially when using more higher

harmonic control. However, this decrease comes at an extreme cost to performance

in the form of the normalized induced power nearly doubling. More realistic scenarios

can be created using multi-objective optimization, where it is shown that vibrational

loading can be decreased around 60% for a 5% increase in power.

Item Open Access Aeroelasticity and Enforced Motion Frequency Lock-in Associated with Non-Synchronous Vibrations in Turbomachinery(2022) Hollenbach III, Richard LeeOne of the most complex challenges in our world today is the interaction between fluids and structures. This complicated meeting is one of the focal points in the design and manufacturing of turbomachinery, whether in jet engines, steam turbines, or rocket pumps. When an unsteady aerodynamic instability interacts with the natural modes of vibration of a rigid body, a phenomenon known as Non-Synchronous Vibrations (NSV) occurs, also referred to in other parts of the world as Vortex-Induced Vibrations (VIV). These vibrations cause blade fracture and ultimately failure in jet engines; however, the underlying flow physics are much less understood than other aeroelastic phenomenon such as flutter or forced response. When the buffeting frequency of the flow around a bluff body nears one of its natural frequencies, the former frequency “locks in” to the latter. Within this “lock in” region there is only one main frequency, while outside of it there are two. Although this phenomenon has been documented both experimentally and computationally, the unsteady pressures associated with this phenomenon have not been accurately measured. In a comprehensive three-fold approach, the spectra of unsteady pressure amplitudes are collected around a few different, increasingly complex, configurations. 1. a circular cylinder 2. a symmetric NACA 0012 airfoil 3. a three-stage turbine All three exhibit NSV in wind tunnel experiments as well as computationally using fluid dynamics simulations. For all cases, the time domain unsteady lift and pressure data is Fast Fourier Transformed to provide frequency domain data. Then, the data is analyzed to understand the underlying flow physics; to do so, the unsteady pressures are separated into contributions due to the enforced motion of the body and those due to vortex shedding. Finally, the unlocked pressure spectrum is linearly combined to reconstruct the lock-in responses. These additional insights into NSV will pave the way towards a design tool for engine manufacturers. In addition, many attempts have been made to model this lock-in behavior, comparing it against experimental and computational fluid dynamics data. A reduced-order model (ROM) utilizes a Van der Pol oscillator model to capture the wake of vortices. This model has been expanded and improved to model NSV in cylinders, airfoils, and turbomachinery blades; the model proved to match experimental data better than its predecessors. This notional model will provide further insight into the phenomenon of NSV and will assist in creating a tool to design safe and efficient jet engines and steam turbines in the future. While this work focuses on Non-Synchronous Vibrations, some time was devoted to the design and manufacturing of another experimental test rig. The seven bladed linear cascade (aptly named “LASCADE”) will be used for flutter tests. The center blade oscillates about its mid-chord at an enforced frequency and amplitude, while the center three titanium printed blades contain pressure taps located at the midspan. Over the course of four years, the author has served as a design consultant, research mentor, manufacturing instructor, and project manager for this cascade. Ultimately, this work furthers the understanding of the underlying flow physics of enforced motion frequency lock-in associated with Non-Synchronous Vibrations and Flutter. The solitary experiments and simulations set the groundwork for additional studies on turbomachinery specific geometry. The three-stage turbine study is just the beginning of a full NSV study to be done in conjunction with experiments. Finally, the ROMs open the door for a full design tool to be constructed for use by turbomachinery designers and manufacturers, saving time, energy, and money in the end.

Item Open Access An Aeroelastic Evaluation of the Flexible Thermal Protection System for an Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator(2015) Goldman, Benjamin DouglasThe purpose of this dissertation is to study the aeroelastic stability of a proposed flexible thermal protection system (FTPS) for the NASA Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD). A flat, square FTPS coupon exhibits violent oscillations during experimental aerothermal testing in NASA's 8 Foot High Temperature Tunnel, leading to catastrophic failure. The behavior of the structural response suggested that aeroelastic flutter may be the primary instability mechanism, prompting further experimental investigation and theoretical model development. Using Von Karman's plate theory for the panel-like structure and piston theory aerodynamics, a set of aeroelastic models were developed and limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) were calculated at the tunnel flow conditions. Similarities in frequency content of the theoretical and experimental responses indicated that the observed FTPS oscillations were likely aeroelastic in nature, specifically LCO/flutter.

While the coupon models can be used for comparison with tunnel tests, they cannot predict accurately the aeroelastic behavior of the FTPS in atmospheric flight. This is because the geometry of the flight vehicle is no longer a flat plate, but rather (approximately) a conical shell. In the second phase of this work, linearized Donnell conical shell theory and piston theory aerodynamics are used to calculate natural modes of vibration and flutter dynamic pressures for various structural models composed of one or more conical shells resting on several circumferential elastic supports. When the flight vehicle is approximated as a single conical shell without elastic supports, asymmetric flutter in many circumferential waves is observed. When the elastic supports are included, the shell flutters symmetrically in zero circumferential waves. Structural damping is found to be important in this case, as "hump-mode" flutter is possible. Aeroelastic models that consider the individual FTPS layers as separate shells exhibit asymmetric flutter at high dynamic pressures relative to the single shell models. Parameter studies also examine the effects of tension, shear modulus reduction, and elastic support stiffness.

Limitations of a linear structural model and piston theory aerodynamics prompted a more elaborate evaluation of the flight configuration. Using nonlinear Donnell conical shell theory for the FTPS structure, the pressure buckling and aeroelastic limit cycle oscillations were studied for a single elastically-supported conical shell. While piston theory was used initially, a time-dependent correction factor was derived using transform methods and potential flow theory to calculate more accurately the low Mach number supersonic flow. Three conical shell geometries were considered: a 3-meter diameter 70 degree shell, a 3.7-meter 70 degree shell, and a 6-meter diameter 70 degree shell. The 6-meter configuration was loaded statically and the results were compared with an experimental load test of a 6-meter HIAD vehicle. Though agreement between theoretical and experimental strains was poor, circumferential wrinkling phenomena observed during the experiments was captured by the theory and axial deformations were qualitatively similar in shape. With piston theory aerodynamics, the nonlinear flutter dynamic pressures of the 3-meter configuration were in agreement with the values calculated using linear theory, and the limit cycle amplitudes were generally on the order of the shell thickness. Pre-buckling pressure loads and the aerodynamic pressure correction factor were studied for all geometries, and these effects resulted in significantly lower flutter boundaries compared with piston theory alone.

In the final phase of this work, the existing linear and nonlinear FTPS shell models were coupled with NASA's FUN3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes CFD code, allowing for the most physically realistic flight predictions. For the linear shell structural model, the elastically-supported shell natural modes were mapped to a CFD grid of a 6-meter HIAD vehicle, and a linear structural dynamics solver internal to the CFD code was used to compute the aeroelastic response. Aerodynamic parameters for a proposed HIAD re-entry trajectory were obtained, and aeroelastic solutions were calculated at three points in the trajectory: Mach 1, Mach 2, and Mach 11 (peak dynamic pressure). No flutter was found at any of these conditions using the linear method, though oscillations (of uncertain origin) on the order of the shell thickness may be possible in the transonic regime. For the nonlinear shell structural model, a set of assumed sinusoidal modes were mapped to the CFD grid, and the linear structural dynamics equations were replaced by a nonlinear ODE solver for the conical shell equations. Successful calculation and restart of the nonlinear dynamic aeroelastic solutions was demonstrated. Preliminary results indicated that dynamic instabilities may be possible at Mach 1 and 2, with a completely stable solution at Mach 11, though further study is needed. A major benefit of this implementation is that the coefficients and mode shapes for the nonlinear conical shell may be replaced with those of other types of structures, greatly expanding the aeroelastic capabilities of FUN3D.

Item Open Access Component Modal Analysis of a Folding Wing(2011) Wang, IvanThis thesis explores the aeroelastic stability of a folding wing with an arbitrary number of wing segments. Simplifying assumptions are made such that it is possible to derive the equations of motion analytically. First, a general structural dynamics model based on beam theory is derived from a modal analysis using Lagrange's equations, and is used to predict the natural frequencies of different folding wing configurations. Next, the structural model is extended to an aeroelastic model by incorporating the effects of unsteady aerodynamic forces. The aeroelastic model is used to predict the flutter speed and flutter frequencies of folding wings. Experiments were conducted for three folding wing configurations - a two-segment wing, a three-segment wing, and a four-segment wing - and the outboard fold angle was varied over a wide range for each configuration. Very good agreement in both magnitude and overall trend was obtained between the theoretical and experimental structural natural frequencies, as well as the flutter frequency. For the flutter speed, very good agreement was obtained for the two-segment model, but the agreement worsens as the number of wing segments increases. Possible sources of error and attempts to improve correlation are described. Overall, the aeroelastic model predicts the general trends to good accuracy, offers some additional physical insight, and can be used to efficiently compute flutter boundaries and frequency characteristics for preliminary design or sensitivity studies.

Item Open Access Computational Studies of Buffet and Fluid-Structure Interaction in Various Flow Regimes(2020) Kruger Bastos, Kai MbaliThis dissertation explores a fluid instability known as buffet, which occurs in the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic regimes. Buffet has been observed in experiments and various computational studies, and its underlying physics are not well-established. The goal of this document is to provide insight into various configurations which produce buffet and attempt to understand the flow physics at play.

Item Open Access Convolution and Volterra Series Approach to Reduced Order Modelling of Unsteady Aerodynamic Loads and Improving Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting of an Aeroelastic System(2020) Levin, DaniA combined approach of linear convolution and higher order Volterra series to reduced order modelling of unsteady transonic aerodynamic loads is presented. The new approach offers a simple method to determine the memory depth of the system, significantly reduces the effort required to generate a model for a wide range of reduced frequencies, and clearly separates the linear and the non-linear contributions. The generated models are completely separated from any specific input signal or a particular reduced frequency. The models were verified in an aeroelastic simulation of a 2D NACA 0012 airfoil. The results correlate well with wind tunnel tests and previously calculated LCO levels.

Our experimental study sought to answer the question: how to maximize the piezoelectric power extraction of an aeroelastic system? A simple rectangular cantilever plate, which experiences LCO, was used as a basic vibrating system. The plate was covered entirely with piezoelectric elements on both sides. By adding small discrete masses along the plate, we were able to increase the power generation efficiency by 260% while reducing the airspeed required to produce this power by 150%, and the level of vibrations by 320%.

Item Open Access Coupled-Mode Flutter for Advanced Turbofans(2010) Clark, Stephen ThomasIn the vast majority of measured turbomachinery blade flutter occurrences, the response occurs predominately in a single mode. The primary reason for this single-mode flutter is that for turbomachinery applications the combination of high mass ratio, high solidity, and large natural frequency separation results in only slight mode coupling.

The increased importance of fuel efficiency is driving the development of improved turbofans and open-rotor fans. These new designs use fewer blades and will incorporate composite materials or hollowed airfoils in their fan blade designs. Both of these design changes result in lower mass ratio, lower solidity fan blades that may cause multi-mode flutter, rather than single-mode flutter as seen on traditional fan blades. Thus, a single mode flutter design analysis technique may not be adequate. The purpose of this study is to determine initial guidelines for deciding when a coupled-mode analysis is necessary.

The results of this research indicate that mass ratio, frequency separation, and solidity have an effect on critical rotor speed. Further, guidelines were developed for when a multi-mode flutter analysis is required. These guidelines define a critical mass ratio that is a function of frequency separation and solidity. For blade mass ratios lower than this critical value, a multi-mode flutter analysis is required. Finally, the limitations of aerodynamic strip-theory have been revealed in a three-dimensional coupled-mode flutter analysis.

Item Open Access Design for Coupled-Mode Flutter and Non-Synchronous Vibration in Turbomachinery(2013) Clark, Stephen ThomasThis research presents the detailed investigation of coupled-mode flutter and non-synchronous vibration in turbomachinery. Coupled-mode flutter and non-synchronous vibration are two aeromechanical challenges in designing turbomachinery that, when present, can cause engine blade failure. Regarding flutter, current industry design practices calculate the aerodynamic loads on a blade due to a single mode. In response to these design standards, a quasi three-dimensional, reduced-order modeling tool was developed for identifying the aeroelastic conditions that cause multi-mode flutter. This tool predicts the onset of coupled-mode flutter reasonable well for four different configurations, though certain parameters were tuned to agree with experimentation. Additionally, the results of this research indicate that mass ratio, frequency separation, and solidity have an effect on critical rotor speed for flutter. Higher mass-ratio blades require larger rotational velocities before they experience coupled-mode flutter. Similarly, increasing the frequency separation between modes and raising the solidity increases the critical rotor speed. Finally, and most importantly, design guidelines were generated for defining when a multi-mode flutter analysis is required in practical turbomachinery design.

Previous work has shown that industry computational fluid dynamics can approximately predict non-synchronous vibration (NSV), but no real understanding of frequency lock-in and blade limit-cycle amplitude exists. Therefore, to understand the causes of NSV, two different reduced-order modeling approaches were used. The first approach uses a van der Pol oscillator to model a non-linear fluid instability. The van der Pol model is then coupled to a structural degree of freedom. This coupled system exhibits the two chief properties seen in experimental and computational non-synchronous vibration. Under various conditions, the fluid instability and the natural structural frequency will lock-in, causing structural limit-cycle oscillations. This research shows that with proper model-coefficient choices, the frequency range of lock-in can be predicted and the conditions for the worst-case, limit-cycle-oscillation amplitude can be determined. This high-amplitude limit-cycle oscillation is found at an off-resonant condition, i.e., the ratio of the fluid-shedding frequency and the natural-structural frequency is not unity. In practice, low amplitude limit-cycle oscillations are acceptable; this research gives insight into when high-amplitude oscillations may occur and suggests that altering a blade's natural frequency to avoid this resonance can potentially make the response worse.

The second reduced-order model uses proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) methods to first reconstruct, and ultimately predict, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of non-synchronous vibration. Overall, this method was successfully developed and implemented, requiring between two and six POD modes to accurately predict CFD solutions that are experiencing non-synchronous vibration. This POD method was first developed and demonstrated for a transversely-moving, two-dimensional cylinder in cross-flow. Later, the method was used for the prediction of CFD solutions for a two-dimensional compressor blade, and the reconstruction of solutions for a three-dimensional first-stage compressor blade.

This research is the first to offer a van der Pol or proper orthogonal decomposition approach to the reduced-order modeling of non-synchronous vibration in turbomachinery. Modeling non-synchronous vibration is especially challenging because NSV is caused by complicated, unsteady flow dynamics; this initial study helps researchers understand the causes of NSV, and aids in the future development of predictive tools for aeromechanical design engineers.

Item Open Access Development of an Efficient Design Method for Non-synchronous Vibrations(2008-04-24) Spiker, Meredith AnneThis research presents a detailed study of non-synchronous vibration (NSV) and the development of an efficient design method for NSV. NSV occurs as a result of the complex interaction of an aerodynamic instability with blade vibrations. Two NSV design methods are considered and applied to three test cases: 2-D circular cylinder, 2-D airfoil cascade tip section of a modern compressor, and 3-D high pressure compressor cascade that encountered NSV in rig testing. The current industry analysis method is to search directly for the frequency of the instability using CFD analysis and then compare it with a fundamental blade mode frequency computed from a structural analysis code. The main disadvantage of this method is that the blades' motion is not considered and therefore, the maximum response is assumed to be when the blade natural frequency and fluid frequency are coincident. An alternate approach, the enforced motion method, is also presented. In this case, enforced blade motion is used to promote lock-in of the blade frequency to the fluid natural frequency at a specified critical amplitude for a range of interblade phase angles (IBPAs). For the IBPAs that are locked-on, the unsteady modal forces are determined. This mode is acceptable if the equivalent damping is greater than zero for all IBPAs. A method for blade re-design is also proposed to determine the maximum blade response by finding the limit cycle oscillation (LCO) amplitude. It is assumed that outside of the lock-in region is an off-resonant, low amplitude condition. A significant result of this research is that for all cases studied herein, the maximum blade response is not at the natural fluid frequency as is assumed by the direct frequency search approach. This has significant implications for NSV design analysis because it demonstrates the requirement to include blade motion. Hence, an enforced motion design method is recommended for industry and the current approach is of little value.Item Open Access Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Scale Effects in Micro Jet Pumps(2011) Gardner, William GeoffretySince the mid-1990s there has been an active effort to develop hydrocarbon-fueled power generation and propulsion systems on the scale of centimeters or smaller. This effort led to the creation and expansion of a field of research focused around the design and reduction to practice of Power MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) devices, beginning first with microscale jet engines and a generation later more broadly encompassing MEMS devices which generate power or pump heat. Due to small device scale and fabrication techniques, design constraints are highly coupled and conventional solutions for device requirements may not be practicable.

This thesis describes the experimental investigation, modeling and potential applications for two classes of microscale jet pumps: jet ejectors and jet injectors. These components pump fluids with no moving parts and can be integrated into Power MEMS devices to satisfy pumping requirements by supplementing or replacing existing solutions. This thesis presents models developed from first principles which predict losses experienced at small length scales and agree well with experimental results. The models further predict maximum achievable power densities at the onset of detrimental viscous losses.

Item Open Access Flutter and Forced Response of Turbomachinery with Frequency Mistuning and Aerodynamic Asymmetry(2008-04-25) Miyakozawa, TomokazuThis dissertation provides numerical studies to improve bladed disk assembly design for preventing blade high cycle fatigue failures. The analyses are divided into two major subjects. For the first subject presented in Chapter 2, the mechanisms of transonic fan flutter for tuned systems are studied to improve the shortcoming of traditional method for modern fans using a 3D time-linearized Navier-Stokes solver. Steady and unsteady flow parameters including local work on the blade surfaces are investigated. It was found that global local work monotonically became more unstable on the pressure side due to the flow rollback effect. The local work on the suction side significantly varied due to nodal diameter and flow rollback effect. Thus, the total local work for the least stable mode is dominant by the suction side. Local work on the pressure side appears to be affected by the shock on the suction side. For the second subject presented in Chapter 3, sensitivity studies are conducted on flutter and forced response due to frequency mistuning and aerodynamic asymmetry using the single family of modes approach by assuming manufacturing tolerance. The unsteady aerodynamic forces are computed using CFD methods assuming aerodynamic symmetry. The aerodynamic asymmetry is applied by perturbing the influence coefficient matrix. These aerodynamic perturbations influence both stiffness and damping while traditional frequency mistuning analysis only perturbs the stiffness. Flutter results from random aerodynamic perturbations of all blades showed that manufacturing variations that effect blade unsteady aerodynamics may cause a stable, perfectly symmetric engine to flutter. For forced response, maximum blade amplitudes are significantly influenced by the aerodynamic perturbation of the imaginary part (damping) of unsteady aerodynamic modal forces. This is contrary to blade frequency mistuning where the stiffness perturbation dominates.Item Open Access Further Reduction of the Fundamental Mistuning Model Using Mistuned Aeroelastic Modes(2018) Quan, AaronDespite decades of research and attention to the problem of mistuning in bladed disks, both industry and academic efforts have yet to yield a comprehensive design solution for the phenomenon. Regardless, reduced order models based on finite element models have equipped designers and researchers with valuable tools to understand and combat the behaviors of mistuned bladed disks. These models, when employed in probabilistic modeling, can yield accurate predictive distributions for the forced response and flutter characteristics of mistuned bladed disks. This effort focuses on the improvement of one such model by novel application of classical modal decomposition methods. In order to elucidate the status of mistuning research, a brief literature survey is conducted to preface the implementation of an additional reduction to the already simple fundamental mistuning model. Mistuned aeroelastic modes are computed after summing the effects of mistuning, structural coupling, and aerodynamic coupling. This new modal basis is then employed to diagonalize fully the forced response problem, allowing for greater computational efficiency and additional insights to be gained. The exactness of this approach is confirmed with a number of academic bladed disk examples and timing of the new methods yields operational cost reductions of more than 75% for most usage conditions. The new method is then employed in a probabilistic forced response analysis of a mistuned rotor. These results are compared to experimental data to further validate the effectiveness of the fundamental mistuning model.

Item Open Access Linear Aeroelastic Stability of Beams and Plates in Three-Dimensional Flow(2012) Gibbs IV, Samuel ChadThe aeroelastic stability of beams and plates in three-dimensional flows is explored as the elastic and aerodynamic parameters are varied. First principal energy methods are used to derive the structural equations of motion. The structural models are coupled with a three-dimensional linear vortex lattice model of the aerodynamics. An aeroelastic model with the beam structural model is used to explore the transition between different fixed boundary conditions and the effect of varying two non-dimensional parameters, the mass ratio $\mu$ and aspect ratio $H^*$, for a beam with a fixed edge normal to the flow. The trends matched previously published theoretical and experimental data, validating the current aeroelastic model. The transition in flutter velocity between the clamped free and pinned free configuration is a non-monotomic transition, with the lowest flutter velocity coming with a finite size spring stiffness. Next a plate-membrane model is used to explore the instability dynamics for different combinations of boundary conditions. For the specific configuration of the trailing edge free and all other edges clamped, the sensitivity to the physical parameters shows that decreasing the streamwise length and increasing the tension in the direction normal to the flow can increase the onset instability velocity. Finally the transition in aeroelastic instabilities for non-axially aligned flows is explored for the cantilevered beam and three sides clamped plate. The cantilevered beam configuration transitions from an entirely bending motion when the clamped edge is normal to the flow to a typical bending/torsional wing flutter when the clamped edge is aligned with the flow. As the flow is rotated the transition to the wing flutter occurs when the flow angle is only 10 deg from the perfectly normal configuration. With three edges clamped, the motion goes from a divergence instability when the free edge is aligned with the flow to a flutter instability when the free edge is normal to the flow. The transition occurs at an intermediate angle. Experiments are carried out to validate the beam and plate elastic models. The beam aeroelastic results are also confirmed experimentally. Experimental values consistently match well with the theoretical predictions for both the aeroelastic and structural models.