# Browsing by Subject "Bayesian nonparametrics"

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Item Open Access Bayesian Estimation and Sensitivity Analysis for Causal Inference(2019) Zaidi, Abbas MThis disseration aims to explore Bayesian methods for causal inference. In chapter 1, we present an overview of fundamental ideas from causal inference along with an outline of the methodological developments that we hope to tackle. In chapter 2, we develop a Gaussian-process mixture model for heterogeneous treatment effect estimation that leverages the use of transformed outcomes. The approach we will present attempts to improve point estimation and uncertainty quantification relative to past work that has used transformed variable related methods as well as traditional outcome modeling. Earlier work on modeling treatment effect heterogeneity using transformed outcomes has relied on tree based methods such as single regression trees and random forests. Under the umbrella of non-parametric models, outcome modeling has been performed using Bayesian additive regression trees and various flavors of weighted single trees. These approaches work well when large samples are available, but suffer in smaller samples where results are more sensitive to model misspecification -- our method attempts to garner improvements in inference quality via a correctly specified model rooted in Bayesian non-parametrics. Furthermore, while we begin with a model that assumes that the treatment assignment mechanism is known, an extension where it is learnt from the data is presented for applications to observational studies. Our approach is applied to simulated and real data to demonstrate our theorized improvements in inference with respect to two causal estimands: the conditional average treatment effect and the average treatment effect. By leveraging our correctly specified model, we are able to more accurately estimate the treatment effects while reducing their variance. In chapter 3, we parametrically and hierarchically estimate the average causal effects of different lengths of stay in the Udayan Ghar Program under the assumption that selection into different lengths is based on a set of observed covariates. This program was piloted in New Delhi, India as a means of providing a residential surrogate to vulnerable and at risk children with the hope of improving their psychological development. We find that the estimated effects on the psychological ideas of self concept and ego resilience (measured by the standardized Piers-Harris score) increase with the length of the time spent in the program. We are also able to conclude that there are measurable differences that exist between male and female children that spend time in the program. In chapter 4, we supplement the estimation of hierarchical dose-response function estimation by introducing a novel sensitivity-analysis and summarization strategy for assessing the robustness of our results to violations of the assumption of unconfoundedness. Finally, in chapter 5, we summarize what this dissertation has achieved, and briefly outline important areas where our work warrants further development.

Item Open Access Bayesian Nonparametric Modeling and Theory for Complex Data(2012) Pati, DebdeepThe dissertation focuses on solving some important theoretical and methodological problems associated with Bayesian modeling of infinite dimensional `objects', popularly called nonparametric Bayes. The term `infinite dimensional object' can refer to a density, a conditional density, a regression surface or even a manifold. Although Bayesian density estimation as well as function estimation are well-justified in the existing literature, there has been little or no theory justifying the estimation of more complex objects (e.g. conditional density, manifold, etc.). Part of this dissertation focuses on exploring the structure of the spaces on which the priors for conditional densities and manifolds are supported while studying how the posterior concentrates as increasing amounts of data are collected.

With the advent of new acquisition devices, there has been a need to model complex objects associated with complex data-types e.g. millions of genes affecting a bio-marker, 2D pixelated images, a cloud of points in the 3D space, etc. A significant portion of this dissertation has been devoted to developing adaptive nonparametric Bayes approaches for learning low-dimensional structures underlying higher-dimensional objects e.g. a high-dimensional regression function supported on a lower dimensional space, closed curves representing the boundaries of shapes in 2D images and closed surfaces located on or near the point cloud data. Characterizing the distribution of these objects has a tremendous impact in several application areas ranging from tumor tracking for targeted radiation therapy, to classifying cells in the brain, to model based methods for 3D animation and so on.

The first three chapters are devoted to Bayesian nonparametric theory and modeling in unconstrained Euclidean spaces e.g. mean regression and density regression, the next two focus on Bayesian modeling of manifolds e.g. closed curves and surfaces, and the final one on nonparametric Bayes spatial point pattern data modeling when the sampling locations are informative of the outcomes.

Item Open Access Bayesian Nonparametric Modeling of Latent Structures(2014) Xing, ZhengmingUnprecedented amount of data has been collected in diverse fields such as social network, infectious disease and political science in this information explosive era. The high dimensional, complex and heterogeneous data imposes tremendous challenges on traditional statistical models. Bayesian nonparametric methods address these challenges by providing models that can fit the data with growing complexity. In this thesis, we design novel Bayesian nonparametric models on dataset from three different fields, hyperspectral images analysis, infectious disease and voting behaviors.

First, we consider analysis of noisy and incomplete hyperspectral imagery, with the objective of removing the noise and inferring the missing data. The noise statistics may be wavelength-dependent, and the fraction of data missing (at random) may be substantial, including potentially entire bands, offering the potential to significantly reduce the quantity of data that need be measured. We achieve this objective by employing Bayesian dictionary learning model, considering two distinct means of imposing sparse dictionary usage and drawing the dictionary elements from a Gaussian process prior, imposing structure on the wavelength dependence of the dictionary elements.

Second, a Bayesian statistical model is developed for analysis of the time-evolving properties of infectious disease, with a particular focus on viruses. The model employs a latent semi-Markovian state process, and the state-transition statistics are driven by three terms: ($i$) a general time-evolving trend of the overall population, ($ii$) a semi-periodic term that accounts for effects caused by the days of the week, and ($iii$) a regression term that relates the probability of infection to covariates (here, specifically, to the Google Flu Trends data).

Third, extensive information on 3 million randomly sampled United States citizens is used to construct a statistical model of constituent preferences for each U.S. congressional district. This model is linked to the legislative voting record of the legislator from each district, yielding an integrated model for constituency data, legislative roll-call votes, and the text of the legislation. The model is used to examine the extent to which legislators' voting records are aligned with constituent preferences, and the implications of that alignment (or lack thereof) on subsequent election outcomes. The analysis is based on a Bayesian nonparametric formalism, with fast inference via a stochastic variational Bayesian analysis.

Item Open Access Ecological Modeling via Bayesian Nonparametric Species Sampling Priors(2023) Zito, AlessandroSpecies sampling models are a broad class of discrete Bayesian nonparametric priors that model the sequential appearance of distinct tags, called species or clusters, in a sequence of labeled objects. Over the last 50 years, species sampling priors have found much success in a variety of settings, including clustering and density estimation. However, despite the rich theoretical and methodological developments, these models have rarely been used as tools by applied ecologists, even though their primary investigation often involves the modeling of actual species. This dissertation aims at partially filling this gap by elucidating how species sampling models can be useful to scientists and practitioners in the ecological field. Our emphasis is on clustering and on species discovery properties linked to species sampling models. In particular, Chapter 2 illustrates how a Dirichlet process mixture model with a random precision parameter leads to greater robustness when inferring the number of clusters, or communities, in a given population. We specifically introduce a novel prior for the precision, called Stirling-gamma distribution, which allows for transparent elicitation supported by theoretical findings. We illustrate its advantages when detecting communities in a colony of ant workers. Chapter 3 presents a general Bayesian framework to model accumulation curves, which summarize the sequential discoveries of distinct species over time. This work is inspired by traditional species sampling models such as the Dirichlet process and the Pitman--Yor process. By modeling the discovery probability as a survival function of some latent variables, a flexible specification that can account for both finite and infinite species richness is developed. We apply our model to a large fungal biodiversity study from Finland. Finally, Chapter 4 presents a novel Bayesian nonparametric taxonomic classifier called BayesANT. Here, the goal is to predict the taxonomy of DNA sequences sampled from the environment. The difficulty of such a task is that the vast majority of species do not have a reference barcode or are yet unknown to science. Hence, species novelty needs to be accounted for when doing classification. BayesANT builds upon Dirichlet-multinomial kernels to model DNA sequences, and upon species sampling models to account for such potential novelty. We show how it attains excellent classification performances, especially when the true taxa of the test sequences are not observed in the training set.All methods presented in this dissertation are freely available as R packages. Our hope is that these contributions will pave the way for future utilization of Bayesian nonparametric methods in applied ecological analyses.

Item Open Access Essays on Propensity Score Methods for Causal Inference in Observational Studies(2018) Nguyen, Nghi Le PhuongIn this dissertation, I present three essays from three different research projects and they involve different usages of propensity scores in drawing causal inferences in observational studies.

Chapter 1 talks about the general idea of causal inference as well as the concept of randomized experiments and observational studies. It introduces the three different projects and their contributions to the literature.

Chapter 2 gives a critical review and an extensive discussion of several commonly-used propensity score methods when the data have a multilevel structure, including matching, weighting, stratification, and methods that combine these with regression. The usage of these methods is illustrated using a data set about endoscopic vein-graft harvesting in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries. We discuss important aspects of the implementation of these methods such as model specification and standard error calculations. Based on the comparison, we provide general guidelines for using propensity score methods with multilevel data in practice. We also provide the relevant code in the form of an \textsf{R} package, available on GitHub.

In observational studies, subjects are no longer assigned to treatment at random as in randomized experiments, and thus the association between the treatment and outcome can be due to some unmeasured variable that affects both the treatment and the outcome. Chapter 3 focuses on conducting sensitivity analysis to assess the robustness of the estimated quantity when the unconfoundedness assumption is violated. Two approaches to sensitivity analysis are presented, both are extensions from previous works to accommodate for a count outcome. One method is based on the subclassification estimator and it relies on maximum likelihood estimation. The second method is more flexible on the estimation method and is based on simulations. We illustrate both methods using a data set from a traffic safety research study about the safety effectiveness (measured in crash counts reduction) of the combined application of center line rumble strips and shoulder rumble strips on two-lane rural roads in Pennsylvania.

Chapter 4 proposes a method for estimating heterogeneous causal effects in observational studies by augmenting additive-interactive Gaussian process regression using the propensity scores, yielding a flexible yet robust way to predict the potential outcome surface from which the conditional treatment effects can be calculated. We show that our method works well even in presence of strong confounding and illustrate this by comparing with commonly-used methods in different settings using simulated data.

Finally, chapter 5 concludes this dissertation and discusses possible future works for each of the projects.

Item Open Access Non-parametric Bayesian Learning with Incomplete Data(2010) Wang, ChunpingIn most machine learning approaches, it is usually assumed that data are complete. When data are partially missing due to various reasons, for example, the failure of a subset of sensors, image corruption or inadequate medical measurements, many learning methods designed for complete data cannot be directly applied. In this dissertation we treat two kinds of problems with incomplete data using non-parametric Bayesian approaches: classification with incomplete features and analysis of low-rank matrices with missing entries.

Incomplete data in classification problems are handled by assuming input features to be generated from a mixture-of-experts model, with each individual expert (classifier) defined by a local Gaussian in feature space. With a linear classifier associated with each Gaussian component, nonlinear classification boundaries are achievable without the introduction of kernels. Within the proposed model, the number of components is theoretically ``infinite'' as defined by a Dirichlet process construction, with the actual number of mixture components (experts) needed inferred based upon the data under test. With a higher-level DP we further extend the classifier for analysis of multiple related tasks (multi-task learning), where model components may be shared across tasks. Available data could be augmented by this way of information transfer even when tasks are only similar in some local regions of feature space, which is particularly critical for cases with scarce incomplete training samples from each task. The proposed algorithms are implemented using efficient variational Bayesian inference and robust performance is demonstrated on synthetic data, benchmark data sets, and real data with natural missing values.

Another scenario of interest is to complete a data matrix with entries missing. The recovery of missing matrix entries is not possible without additional assumptions on the matrix under test, and here we employ the common assumption that the matrix is low-rank. Unlike methods with a preset fixed rank, we propose a non-parametric Bayesian alternative based on the singular value decomposition (SVD), where missing entries are handled naturally, and the number of underlying factors is imposed to be small and inferred in the light of observed entries. Although we assume missing at random, the proposed model is generalized to incorporate auxiliary information including missingness features. We also make a first attempt in the matrix-completion community to acquire new entries actively. By introducing a probit link function, we are able to handle counting matrices with the decomposed low-rank matrices latent. The basic model and its extensions are validated on

synthetic data, a movie-rating benchmark and a new data set presented for the first time.

Item Open Access Nonparametric Bayesian Dictionary Learning and Count and Mixture Modeling(2013) Zhou, MingyuanAnalyzing the ever-increasing data of unprecedented scale, dimensionality, diversity, and complexity poses considerable challenges to conventional approaches of statistical modeling. Bayesian nonparametrics constitute a promising research direction, in that such techniques can fit the data with a model that can grow with complexity to match the data. In this dissertation we consider nonparametric Bayesian modeling with completely random measures, a family of pure-jump stochastic processes with nonnegative increments. In particular, we study dictionary learning for sparse image representation using the beta process and the dependent hierarchical beta process, and we present the negative binomial process, a novel nonparametric Bayesian prior that unites the seemingly disjoint problems of count and mixture modeling. We show a wide variety of successful applications of our nonparametric Bayesian latent variable models to real problems in science and engineering, including count modeling, text analysis, image processing, compressive sensing, and computer vision.

Item Open Access Nonparametric Bayesian Models for Joint Analysis of Imagery and Text(2014) Li, LingboIt has been increasingly important to develop statistical models to manage large-scale high-dimensional image data. This thesis presents novel hierarchical nonparametric Bayesian models for joint analysis of imagery and text. This thesis consists two main parts.

The first part is based on single image processing. We first present a spatially dependent model for simultaneous image segmentation and interpretation. Given a corrupted image, by imposing spatial inter-relationships within imagery, the model not only improves reconstruction performance but also yields smooth segmentation. Then we develop online variational Bayesian algorithm for dictionary learning to process large-scale datasets, based on online stochastic optimization with a natu- ral gradient step. We show that dictionary is learned simultaneously with image reconstruction on large natural images containing tens of millions of pixels.

The second part applies dictionary learning for joint analysis of multiple image and text to infer relationship among images. We show that feature extraction and image organization with annotation (when available) can be integrated by unifying dictionary learning and hierarchical topic modeling. We present image organization in both "flat" and hierarchical constructions. Compared with traditional algorithms feature extraction is separated from model learning, our algorithms not only better fits the datasets, but also provides richer and more interpretable structures of image

Item Open Access Nonparametric Bayesian Models for Supervised Dimension Reduction and Regression(2009) Mao, KaiWe propose nonparametric Bayesian models for supervised dimension

reduction and regression problems. Supervised dimension reduction is

a setting where one needs to reduce the dimensionality of the

predictors or find the dimension reduction subspace and lose little

or no predictive information. Our first method retrieves the

dimension reduction subspace in the inverse regression framework by

utilizing a dependent Dirichlet process that allows for natural

clustering for the data in terms of both the response and predictor

variables. Our second method is based on ideas from the gradient

learning framework and retrieves the dimension reduction subspace

through coherent nonparametric Bayesian kernel models. We also

discuss and provide a new rationalization of kernel regression based

on nonparametric Bayesian models allowing for direct and formal

inference on the uncertain regression functions. Our proposed models

apply for high dimensional cases where the number of variables far

exceed the sample size, and hold for both the classical setting of

Euclidean subspaces and the Riemannian setting where the marginal

distribution is concentrated on a manifold. Our Bayesian perspective

adds appropriate probabilistic and statistical frameworks that allow

for rich inference such as uncertainty estimation which is important

for measuring the estimates. Formal probabilistic models with

likelihoods and priors are given and efficient posterior sampling

can be obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo methodologies,

particularly Gibbs sampling schemes. For the supervised dimension

reduction as the posterior draws are linear subspaces which are

points on a Grassmann manifold, we do the posterior inference with

respect to geodesics on the Grassmannian. The utility of our

approaches is illustrated on simulated and real examples.

Item Open Access Recent Advances on the Design, Analysis and Decision-making with Expensive Virtual Experiments(2024) Ji, YiWith breakthroughs in virtual experimentation, computer simulation has been replacing physical experiments that are prohibitively expensive or infeasible to perform in a large scale. However, as the system becomes more complex and realistic, such simulations can be extremely time-consuming and simulating the entire parameter space becomes impractical. One solution is computer emulation, which builds a predictive model based on a handful of simulation data. Gaussian process is a popular emulator used in many physics and engineering applications for this purpose. In particular, for complicated scientific phenomena like the Quark-Gluon Plasma, employing a multi-fidelity emulator to pool information from multi-fidelity simulation data may enhance predictive performance while simultaneously reducing simulation costs. In this dissertation, we explore two novel approaches for multi-fidelity Gaussian process modeling. The first model is the Graphical Multi-fidelity Gaussian Process (GMGP) model, which embeds scientific dependencies among multi-fidelity data in a directed acyclic graph (DAG). The second model we present is the Conglomerate Multi-fidelity Gaussian Process (CONFIG) model, applicable to scenarios where the accuracy of a simulator is controlled by multiple continuous fidelity parameters.

Software engineering is another domain relying heavily on virtual experimentation. In order to ensure the robustness of a new software application, it is required to go through extensive testing and validation before production. Such testing is typically carried out through virtual experimentation and can require substantial computing resources, particularly as the system complexity grows. Fault localization is a key step in software testing as it pinpoints root causes of failures based on executed test case outcomes. However, existing fault localization techniques are mostly deterministic and provides limited insight into assessing the probabilistic risk of failure-inducing combinations. To address this limitation, we present a novel Bayesian Fault Localization (BayesFLo) framework for software testing, yielding a principled and probabilistic ranking of suspicious inputs for identifying the root causes of software failures.

Item Open Access Sensor Planning for Bayesian Nonparametric Target Modeling(2016) Wei, HongchuanBayesian nonparametric models, such as the Gaussian process and the Dirichlet process, have been extensively applied for target kinematics modeling in various applications including environmental monitoring, traffic planning, endangered species tracking, dynamic scene analysis, autonomous robot navigation, and human motion modeling. As shown by these successful applications, Bayesian nonparametric models are able to adjust their complexities adaptively from data as necessary, and are resistant to overfitting or underfitting. However, most existing works assume that the sensor measurements used to learn the Bayesian nonparametric target kinematics models are obtained a priori or that the target kinematics can be measured by the sensor at any given time throughout the task. Little work has been done for controlling the sensor with bounded field of view to obtain measurements of mobile targets that are most informative for reducing the uncertainty of the Bayesian nonparametric models. To present the systematic sensor planning approach to leaning Bayesian nonparametric models, the Gaussian process target kinematics model is introduced at first, which is capable of describing time-invariant spatial phenomena, such as ocean currents, temperature distributions and wind velocity fields. The Dirichlet process-Gaussian process target kinematics model is subsequently discussed for modeling mixture of mobile targets, such as pedestrian motion patterns.

Novel information theoretic functions are developed for these introduced Bayesian nonparametric target kinematics models to represent the expected utility of measurements as a function of sensor control inputs and random environmental variables. A Gaussian process expected Kullback Leibler divergence is developed as the expectation of the KL divergence between the current (prior) and posterior Gaussian process target kinematics models with respect to the future measurements. Then, this approach is extended to develop a new information value function that can be used to estimate target kinematics described by a Dirichlet process-Gaussian process mixture model. A theorem is proposed that shows the novel information theoretic functions are bounded. Based on this theorem, efficient estimators of the new information theoretic functions are designed, which are proved to be unbiased with the variance of the resultant approximation error decreasing linearly as the number of samples increases. Computational complexities for optimizing the novel information theoretic functions under sensor dynamics constraints are studied, and are proved to be NP-hard. A cumulative lower bound is then proposed to reduce the computational complexity to polynomial time.

Three sensor planning algorithms are developed according to the assumptions on the target kinematics and the sensor dynamics. For problems where the control space of the sensor is discrete, a greedy algorithm is proposed. The efficiency of the greedy algorithm is demonstrated by a numerical experiment with data of ocean currents obtained by moored buoys. A sweep line algorithm is developed for applications where the sensor control space is continuous and unconstrained. Synthetic simulations as well as physical experiments with ground robots and a surveillance camera are conducted to evaluate the performance of the sweep line algorithm. Moreover, a lexicographic algorithm is designed based on the cumulative lower bound of the novel information theoretic functions, for the scenario where the sensor dynamics are constrained. Numerical experiments with real data collected from indoor pedestrians by a commercial pan-tilt camera are performed to examine the lexicographic algorithm. Results from both the numerical simulations and the physical experiments show that the three sensor planning algorithms proposed in this dissertation based on the novel information theoretic functions are superior at learning the target kinematics with

little or no prior knowledge

Item Open Access Some Explorations of Bayesian Joint Quantile Regression(2017) Shi, WenliAlthough quantile regression provides a comprehensive and robust replacement for the traditional mean regression, a complete estimation technique is in blank for a long time. Original separate estimation could cause severe problems, which obstructs its popularization in methodology and application. A novel complete Bayesian joint estimation of quantile regression is proposed and serves as a thorough solution to this historical challenge. In this thesis, we first introduce this modeling technique and propose some preliminary but important theoretical development on the posterior convergence rate of this novel joint estimation, which offers significant guidance to the ultimate results. We provide the posterior convergence rate for the density estimation model induced by this joint quantile regression model. Furthermore, the prior concentration condition of the truncated version of this joint quantile regression model is proved and the entropy condition of the truncated model with any sphere predictor plane centered at 0 is verified. An application on high school math achievement is also introduced, which reveals some deep association between math achievement and socio-economic status. Some further developments about the estimation technique, convergence rate and application are discussed. Furthermore, some suggestions on school choices for minority students are mentioned according to the application.

Item Open Access Some Recent Advances in Non- and Semiparametric Bayesian Modeling with Copulas, Mixtures, and Latent Variables(2013) Murray, JaredThis thesis develops flexible non- and semiparametric Bayesian models for mixed continuous, ordered and unordered categorical data. These methods have a range of possible applications; the applications considered in this thesis are drawn primarily from the social sciences, where multivariate, heterogeneous datasets with complex dependence and missing observations are the norm.

The first contribution is an extension of the Gaussian factor model to Gaussian copula factor models, which accommodate continuous and ordinal data with unspecified marginal distributions. I describe how this model is the most natural extension of the Gaussian factor model, preserving its essential dependence structure and the interpretability of factor loadings and the latent variables. I adopt an approximate likelihood for posterior inference and prove that, if the Gaussian copula model is true, the approximate posterior distribution of the copula correlation matrix asymptotically converges to the correct parameter under nearly any marginal distributions. I demonstrate with simulations that this method is both robust and efficient, and illustrate its use in an application from political science.

The second contribution is a novel nonparametric hierarchical mixture model for continuous, ordered and unordered categorical data. The model includes a hierarchical prior used to couple component indices of two separate models, which are also linked by local multivariate regressions. This structure effectively overcomes the limitations of existing mixture models for mixed data, namely the overly strong local independence assumptions. In the proposed model local independence is replaced by local conditional independence, so that the induced model is able to more readily adapt to structure in the data. I demonstrate the utility of this model as a default engine for multiple imputation of mixed data in a large repeated-sampling study using data from the Survey of Income and Participation. I show that it improves substantially on its most popular competitor, multiple imputation by chained equations (MICE), while enjoying certain theoretical properties that MICE lacks.

The third contribution is a latent variable model for density regression. Most existing density regression models are quite flexible but somewhat cumbersome to specify and fit, particularly when the regressors are a combination of continuous and categorical variables. The majority of these methods rely on extensions of infinite discrete mixture models to incorporate covariate dependence in mixture weights, atoms or both. I take a fundamentally different approach, introducing a continuous latent variable which depends on covariates through a parametric regression. In turn, the observed response depends on the latent variable through an unknown function. I demonstrate that a spline prior for the unknown function is quite effective relative to Dirichlet Process mixture models in density estimation settings (i.e., without covariates) even though these Dirichlet process mixtures have better theoretical properties asymptotically. The spline formulation enjoys a number of computational advantages over more flexible priors on functions. Finally, I demonstrate the utility of this model in regression applications using a dataset on U.S. wages from the Census Bureau, where I estimate the return to schooling as a smooth function of the quantile index.

Item Open Access Structured Bayesian learning through mixture models(2013) Petralia, FrancescaIn this thesis, we develop some Bayesian mixture density estimation for univariate and multivariate data. We start proposing a repulsive process favoring mixture components further apart. While conducting inferences on the cluster-specific parameters, current frequentist and Bayesian methods often encounter problems when clusters are placed too close together to be scientifically meaningful. Current Bayesian practice generates component-specific parameters independently from a common prior, which tends to favor similar components and often leads to substantial probability assigned to redundant components that are not needed to fit the data. As an alternative, we propose to generate components from a repulsive process, which leads to fewer, better separated and more interpretable clusters.

In the second part of the thesis, we face the problem of modeling the conditional distribution of a response variable given a high dimensional vector of predictors potentially concentrated near a lower dimensional subspace or manifold. In many settings it is important to allow not only the mean but also the variance and shape of the response density to change flexibly with features, which are massive-dimensional. We propose a multiresolution model that scales efficiently to massive numbers of features, and can be implemented efficiently with slice sampling.

In the third part of the thesis, we deal with the problem of characterizing the conditional density of a multivariate vector of response given a potentially high dimensional vector of predictors. The proposed model flexibly characterizes the density of the response variable by hierarchically coupling a collection of factor models, each one defined on a different scale of resolution. As it is illustrated in Chapter 4, our proposed method achieves good predictive performance compared to competitive models while efficiently scaling to high dimensional predictors.