# Browsing by Subject "Option Pricing"

###### Results Per Page

###### Sort Options

Item Open Access A Black-Scholes-integrated Gaussian Process Model for American Option Pricing(2020-04-15) Kim, ChiwanAcknowledging the lack of option pricing models that simultaneously have high prediction power, high computational efficiency, and interpretations that abide by financial principles, we suggest a Black-Scholes-integrated Gaussian process (BSGP) learning model that is capable of making accurate predictions backed with fundamental financial principles. Most data-driven models boast strong computational power at the expense of inferential results that can be explained with financial principles. Vice versa, most closed-form stochastic models (principle-driven) exhibit inferential results at the cost of computational efficiency. By integrating the Black-Scholes computed price for an equivalent European option into the mean function of the Gaussian process, we can design a learning model that emphasizes the strengths of both data- driven and principle-driven approaches. Using American (SPY) call and put option price data from 2019 May to June, we condition the Black-Scholes mean Gaussian Process prior with observed data to derive the posterior distribution that is used to predict American option prices. Not only does the proposed BSGP model provide accurate predictions, high computational efficiency, and interpretable results, but it also captures the discrepancy between a theoretical option price approximation derived by the Black-Scholes and predicted price from the BSGP model.Item Open Access Essays in Financial Econometrics(2015) De Lira Salvatierra, IrvingThe main goal of this work is to explore the effects of time-varying extreme jump tail dependencies in asset markets. Consequently, a lot of attention has been devoted to understand the extremal tail dependencies between of assets. As pointed by Hansen (2013), the estimation of tail risks dependence is a challenging task and their implications in several sectors of the economy are of great importance. One of the principal challenges is to provide a measure systemic risks that is, in principle, statistically tractable and has an economic meaning. Therefore, there is a need of a standardize dependence measures or at least to provide a methodology that can capture the complexity behind global distress in the economy. These measures should be able to explain not only the dynamics of the most recent financial crisis but also the prior events of distress in the world economy, which is the motivation of this paper. In order to explore the tail dependencies I exploit the information embedded in option prices and intra-daily high frequency data.

The first chapter, a co-authored work with Andrew Patton, proposes a new class of dynamic copula models for daily asset returns that exploits information from high frequency (intra-daily) data. We augment the generalized autoregressive score (GAS) model of Creal, et al. (2013) with high frequency measures such as realized correlation to obtain a "GRAS" model. We find that the inclusion of realized measures significantly improves the in-sample fit of dynamic copula models across a range of U.S. equity returns. Moreover, we find that out-of-sample density forecasts from our GRAS models are superior to those from simpler models. Finally, we consider a simple portfolio choice problem to illustrate the economic gains from exploiting high frequency data for modeling dynamic dependence.

In the second chapter using information from option prices I construct two new measures of dependence between assets and industries, the Jump Tail Implied Correlation and the Tail Correlation Risk Premia. The main contribution in this chapter is the construction of a systemic risk factor from daily financial measures using a quantile-regression-based methodology. In this direction, I fill the existing gap between downturns in the financial sector and the real economy. I find that this new index performs well to forecast in-sample and out-of-sample quarterly macroeconomic shocks. In addition, I analyze whether the tail risk of the correlation may be priced. I find that for the S&P500 and its sectors there is an ex ante premium to hedge against systemic risks and changes in the aggregate market correlation. Moreover, I provide evidence that the tails of the implied correlation have remarkable predictive power for future stock market returns.

Item Open Access Essays on the Econometrics of Option Prices(2014) Vogt, ErikThis dissertation develops new econometric techniques for use in estimating and conducting inference on parameters that can be identified from option prices. The techniques in question extend the existing literature in financial econometrics along several directions.

The first essay considers the problem of estimating and conducting inference on the term structures of a class of economically interesting option portfolios. The option portfolios of interest play the role of functionals on an infinite-dimensional parameter (the option surface indexed by the term structure of state-price densities) that is well-known to be identified from option prices. Admissible functionals in the essay are generalizations of the VIX volatility index, which represent weighted integrals of options prices at a fixed maturity. By forming portfolios for various maturities, one can study their term structure. However, an important econometric difficulty that must be addressed is the illiquidity of options at longer maturities, which the essay overcomes by proposing a new nonparametric framework that takes advantage of asset pricing restrictions to estimate a shape-conforming option surface. In a second stage, the option portfolios of interest are cast as functionals of the estimated option surface, which then gives rise to a new, asymptotic distribution theory for option portfolios. The distribution theory is used to quantify the estimation error induced by computing integrated option portfolios from a sample of noisy option data. Moreover, by relying on the method of sieves, the framework is nonparametric, adheres to economic shape restrictions for arbitrary maturities, yields closed-form option prices, and is easy to compute. The framework also permits the extraction of the entire term structure of risk-neutral distributions in closed-form. Monte Carlo simulations confirm the framework's performance in finite samples. An application to the term structure of the synthetic variance swap portfolio finds sizeable uncertainty around the swap's true fair value, particularly when the variance swap is synthesized from noisy long-maturity options. A nonparametric investigation into the term structure of the variance risk premium finds growing compensation for variance risk at long maturities.

The second essay, which represents joint work with Jia Li, proposes an econometric framework for inference on parametric option pricing models with two novel features. First, point identification is not assumed. The lack of identification arises naturally when a researcher only has interval observations on option quotes rather than on the efficient option price itself, which implies that the parameters of interest are only partially identified by observed option prices. This issue is solved by adopting a moment inequality approach. Second, the essay imposes no-arbitrage restrictions between the risk-neutral and the physical measures by nonparametrically estimating quantities that are invariant to changes of measures using high-frequency returns data. Theoretical justification for this framework is provided and is based on an asymptotic setting in which the sampling interval of high frequency returns goes to zero as the sampling span goes to infinity. Empirically, the essay shows that inference on risk-neutral parameters becomes much more conservative once the assumption of identification is relaxed. At the same time, however, the conservative inference approach yields new and interesting insights into how option model parameters are related. Finally, the essay shows how the informativeness of the inference can be restored with the use of high frequency observations on the underlying.

The third essay applies the sieve estimation framework developed in this dissertation to estimate a weekly time series of the risk-neutral return distribution's quantiles. Analogous quantiles for the objective-measure distribution are estimated using available methods in the literature for forecasting conditional quantiles from historical data. The essay documents the time-series properties for a range of return quantiles under each measure and further compares the difference between matching return quantiles. This difference is shown to correspond to a risk premium on binary options that pay off when the underlying asset moves below a given quantile. A brief empirical study shows asymmetric compensation for these return risk premia across different quantiles of the conditional return distribution.