# Browsing by Subject "Physics, Atomic, Molecular & Chemical"

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Item Open Access A microscopic model of the Stokes-Einstein relation in arbitrary dimension.(The Journal of chemical physics, 2018-06) Charbonneau, Benoit; Charbonneau, Patrick; Szamel, GrzegorzThe Stokes-Einstein relation (SER) is one of the most robust and widely employed results from the theory of liquids. Yet sizable deviations can be observed for self-solvation, which cannot be explained by the standard hydrodynamic derivation. Here, we revisit the work of Masters and Madden [J. Chem. Phys. 74, 2450-2459 (1981)], who first solved a statistical mechanics model of the SER using the projection operator formalism. By generalizing their analysis to all spatial dimensions and to partially structured solvents, we identify a potential microscopic origin of some of these deviations. We also reproduce the SER-like result from the exact dynamics of infinite-dimensional fluids.Item Open Access Dynamics of a qubit in a high-impedance transmission line from a bath perspective(Physical Review A, 2016-03-28) Bera, S; Baranger, HU; Florens, SWe investigate the quantum dynamics of a generic model of light-matter interaction in the context of high-impedance waveguides, focusing on the behavior of the photonic states generated in the waveguide. The model treated consists simply of a two-level system coupled to a bosonic bath (the Ohmic spin-boson model). Quantum quenches as well as scattering of an incident coherent pulse are studied using two complementary methods. First, we develop an approximate ansatz for the electromagnetic waves based on a single multimode coherent state wave function; formally, this approach combines in a single framework ideas from adiabatic renormalization, the Born-Markov approximation, and input-output theory. Second, we present numerically exact results for scattering of a weak intensity pulse by using numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculations. NRG provides a benchmark for any linear response property throughout the ultrastrong-coupling regime. We find that in a sudden quantum quench, the coherent state approach produces physical artifacts, such as improper relaxation to the steady state. These previously unnoticed problems are related to the simplified form of the ansatz that generates spurious correlations within the bath. In the scattering problem, NRG is used to find the transmission and reflection of a single photon, as well as the inelastic scattering of that single photon. Simple analytical formulas are established and tested against the NRG data that predict quantitatively the transport coefficients for up to moderate environmental impedance. These formulas resolve pending issues regarding the presence of inelastic losses in the spin-boson model near absorption resonances, and could be used for comparison to experiments in Josephson waveguide quantum electrodynamics. Finally, the scattering results using the coherent state wave-function approach are compared favorably to the NRG results for very weak incident intensity. We end our study by presenting results at higher power where the response of the system is nonlinear.Item Open Access Gardner physics in amorphous solids and beyond.(The Journal of chemical physics, 2019-07) Berthier, Ludovic; Biroli, Giulio; Charbonneau, Patrick; Corwin, Eric I; Franz, Silvio; Zamponi, FrancescoOne of the most remarkable predictions to emerge out of the exact infinite-dimensional solution of the glass problem is the Gardner transition. Although this transition was first theoretically proposed a generation ago for certain mean-field spin glass models, its materials relevance was only realized when a systematic effort to relate glass formation and jamming was undertaken. A number of nontrivial physical signatures associated with the Gardner transition have since been considered in various areas, from models of structural glasses to constraint satisfaction problems. This perspective surveys these recent advances and discusses the novel research opportunities that arise from them.Item Open Access Multiple emitters in a waveguide: Nonreciprocity and correlated photons at perfect elastic transmission(Physical Review A, 2017-07-21) Fang, YLL; Baranger, HUWe investigate interference and correlation effects when several detuned emitters are placed along a one-dimensional photonic waveguide. Such a setup allows multiple interactions between the photons and the strongly coupled emitters, and underlies proposed devices for quantum information processing. We show, first, that a pair of detuned two-level systems (2LS) separated by a half wavelength mimic a driven Λ-type three-level system (3LS) in both the single- and two-photon sectors. There is an interference-induced transparency peak at which the fluorescence is quenched, leaving the transmitted photons completely uncorrelated. Slightly away from this separation, we find that the inelastic scattering (fluorescence) is large, leading to nonlinear effects such as nonreciprocity (rectification). We connect this nonreciprocity to inelastic scattering caused by driving a dark pole and so derive a condition for maximum rectification. Finally, by placing a true 3LS midway between the two 2LS, we show that elastic scattering produces only transmission, but inelastic scattering nevertheless occurs (the fluorescence is not quenched) causing substantial photon correlations.Item Open Access Particle Production in Ultrastrong-Coupling Waveguide QED(Physical Review A, 2018-10-08) Gheeraert, Nicolas; Zhang, Xin HH; Sépulcre, Théo; Bera, Soumya; Roch, Nicolas; Baranger, Harold U; Florens, SergeUnderstanding large-scale interacting quantum matter requires dealing with the huge number of quanta that are produced by scattering even a few particles against a complex quantum object. Prominent examples are found from high-energy cosmic ray showers, to the optical or electrical driving of degenerate Fermi gases. We tackle this challenge in the context of many-body quantum optics, as motivated by the recent developments of circuit quantum electrodynamics at ultrastrong coupling. The issue of particle production is addressed quantitatively with a simple yet powerful concept rooted in the quantum superposition principle of multimode coherent states. This key idea is illustrated by the study of multiphoton emission from a single two-level artificial atom coupled to a high impedance waveguide, driven by a nearly monochromatic coherent tone. We find surprisingly that the off-resonant inelastic emission line shape is dominated by broadband particle production, due to the large phase space associated with contributions that do not conserve the number of excitations. Such frequency conversion processes produce striking signatures in time correlation measurements, which can be tested experimentally in quantum waveguides. These ideas open new directions for the simulation of a variety of physical systems, from polaron dynamics in solids to complex superconducting quantum architectures.Item Open Access Strongly correlated photons generated by coupling a three- or four-level system to a waveguide(Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 2012-04-19) Zheng, H; Gauthier, DJ; Baranger, HUWe study the generation of strongly correlated photons by coupling an atom to photonic quantum fields in a one-dimensional waveguide. Specifically, we consider a three-level or four-level system for the atom. Photon-photon bound states emerge as a manifestation of the strong photon-photon correlation mediated by the atom. Effective repulsive or attractive interaction between photons can be produced, causing either suppressed multiphoton transmission (photon blockade) or enhanced multiphoton transmission (photon-induced tunneling). As a result, nonclassical light sources can be generated on demand by sending coherent states into the proposed system. We calculate the second-order correlation function of the transmitted field and observe bunching and antibunching caused by the bound states. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed system can produce photon pairs with a high degree of spectral entanglement, which have a large capacity for carrying information and are important for large-alphabet quantum communication. © 2012 American Physical Society.Item Open Access Two-qubit entangling gates within arbitrarily long chains of trapped ions(Physical Review A, 2019-08-26) Landsman, KA; Wu, Y; Leung, PH; Zhu, D; Linke, NM; Brown, KR; Duan, L; Monroe, CIon trap quantum computers are based on modulating the Coulomb interaction between atomic ion qubits using external forces. However, the spectral crowding of collective motional modes could pose a challenge to the control of such interactions for large numbers of qubits. Here, we show that high-fidelity quantum gate operations are still possible with very large trapped ion crystals by using a small and fixed number of motional modes, simplifying the scaling of ion trap quantum computers. We present analytical work that shows that gate operations need not couple to the motion of distant ions, allowing parallel entangling gates with a crosstalk error that falls off as the inverse cube of the distance between the pairs. We also experimentally demonstrate high-fidelity entangling gates on a fully connected set of seventeen Yb+171 qubits using simple laser pulse shapes that primarily couple to just a few modes.Item Open Access Waveguide QED: Power spectra and correlations of two photons scattered off multiple distant qubits and a mirror(Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 2015-05-22) Fang, YLL; Baranger, HUWe study two-level systems (2LS) coupled at different points to a one-dimensional waveguide in which one end is open and the other is either open (infinite waveguide) or closed by a mirror (semi-infinite). Upon injection of two photons (corresponding to weak coherent driving), the resonance fluorescence and photon correlations are shaped by the effective qubit transition frequencies and decay rates, which are substantially modified by interference effects. In contrast to the well-known result in an infinite waveguide, photons reflected by a single 2LS coupled to a semi-infinite waveguide are initially bunched, a result that can be simply explained by stimulated emission. As the number of 2LS increases (up to 10 are considered here), rapid oscillations build up in the correlations that persist for a very long time. For instance, when the incoming photons are slightly detuned, the transmitted photons in the infinite waveguide are highly antibunched. On the other hand, upon resonant driving, incoherently reflected photons are mostly distributed within the photonic band gap and several sharp side peaks. These features can be explained by considering the poles of the single-particle Green function in the Markovian regime combined with the time delay. Our calculation is not restricted to the Markovian regime, and we obtain several fully non-Markovian results. We show that a single 2LS in a semi-infinite waveguide can not be decoupled by placing it at the node of the photonic field, in contrast to recent results in the Markovian regime. Our results illustrate the complexities that ensue when several qubits are strongly coupled to a bus (the waveguide) as might happen in quantum information processing.