# Browsing by Subject "Physics, Condensed Matter"

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Item Open Access Chiral quasiparticle tunneling between quantum Hall edges in proximity with a superconductor(Physical Review B, 2019-09-10) Wei, MT; Draelos, AW; Seredinski, A; Ke, CT; Li, H; Mehta, Y; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Yamamoto, M; Tarucha, S; Finkelstein, G; Amet, F; Borzenets, IV© 2019 American Physical Society. We study a two-terminal graphene Josephson junction with contacts shaped to form a narrow constriction, less than 100nm in length. The contacts are made from type-II superconducting contacts and able to withstand magnetic fields high enough to reach the quantum Hall regime in graphene. In this regime, the device conductance is determined by edge states, plus the contribution from the constricted region. In particular, the constriction area can support supercurrents up to fields of ∼2.5T. Additionally, enhanced conductance is observed through a wide range of magnetic fields and gate voltages. This additional conductance and the appearance of supercurrent is attributed to the tunneling between counterpropagating quantum Hall edge states along opposite superconducting contacts.Item Open Access Computational Study of Low-friction Quasicrystalline Coatings via Simulations of Thin Film Growth of Hydrocarbons and Rare Gases(2008-04-25) Setyawan, WahyuQuasicrystalline compounds (QC) have been shown to have lower friction compared to other structures of the same constituents. The abscence of structural interlocking when two QC surfaces slide against one another yields the low friction. To use QC as low-friction coatings in combustion engines where hydrocarbon-based oil lubricant is commonly used, knowledge of how a film of lubricant forms on the coating is required. Any adsorbed films having non-quasicrystalline structure will reduce the self-lubricity of the coatings. In this manuscript, we report the results of simulations on thin films growth of selected hydrocarbons and rare gases on a decagonal Al$_{73}$Ni$_{10}$Co$_{17}$ quasicrystal (d-AlNiCo). Grand canonical Monte Carlo method is used to perform the simulations. We develop a set of classical interatomic many-body potentials which are based on the embedded-atom method to study the adsorption processes for hydrocarbons. Methane, propane, hexane, octane, and benzene are simulated and show complete wetting and layered films. Methane monolayer forms a pentagonal order commensurate with the d-AlNiCo. Propane forms disordered monolayer. Hexane and octane adsorb in a close-packed manner consistent with their bulk structure. The results of hexane and octane are expected to represent those of longer alkanes which constitute typical lubricants. Benzene monolayer has pentagonal order at low temperatures which transforms into triangular lattice at high temperatures. The effects of size mismatch and relative strength of the competing interactions (adsorbate-substrate and between adsorbates) on the film growth and structure are systematically studied using rare gases with Lennard-Jones pair potentials. It is found that the relative strength of the interactions determines the growth mode, while the structure of the film is affected mostly by the size mismatch between adsorbate and substrate's characteristic length. On d-AlNiCo, xenon monolayer undergoes a first-order structural transition from quasiperiodic pentagonal to periodic triangular. Smaller gases such as Ne, Ar, Kr do not show such transition. A simple rule is proposed to predict the existence of the transition which will be useful in the search of the appropriate quasicrystalline coatings for certain oil lubricants. Another part of this thesis is the calculation of phase diagram of Fe-Mo-C system under pressure for studying the effects of Mo on the thermodynamics of Fe:Mo nanoparticles as catalysts for growing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Adding an appropriate amount of Mo to Fe particles avoids the formation of stable binary Fe$_3$C carbide that can terminate SWCNTs growth. Eventhough the formation of ternary carbides in Fe-Mo-C system might also reduce the activity of the catalyst, there are regions in the Fe:Mo which contain enough free Fe and excess carbon to yield nanotubes. Furthermore, the ternary carbides become stable at a smaller size of particle as compared to Fe$_3$C indicating that Fe:Mo particles can be used to grow smaller SWCNTs.Item Open Access Detecting a Majorana-fermion zero mode using a quantum dot(Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 2011-11-16) Liu, DE; Baranger, HUWe propose an experimental setup for detecting a Majorana zero mode consisting of a spinless quantum dot coupled to the end of a p-wave superconducting nanowire. The Majorana bound state at the end of the wire strongly influences the conductance through the quantum dot: Driving the wire through the topological phase transition causes a sharp jump in the conductance by a factor of 1/2. In the topological phase, the zero-temperature peak value of the dot conductance (i.e., when the dot is on resonance and symmetrically coupled to the leads) is e2/2h. In contrast, if the wire is in its trivial phase, the conductance peak value is e2/h, or if a regular fermionic zero mode occurs on the end of the wire, the conductance is 0. The system can also be used to tune Flensberg's qubit system to the required degeneracy point. © 2011 American Physical Society.Item Open Access Detecting photon-photon interactions in a superconducting circuit(Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 2015-10-06) Jin, LJ; Houzet, M; Meyer, JS; Baranger, HU; Hekking, FWJA local interaction between photons can be engineered by coupling a nonlinear system to a transmission line. The required transmission line can be conveniently formed from a chain of Josephson junctions. The nonlinearity is generated by side-coupling this chain to a Cooper pair box. We propose to probe the resulting photon-photon interactions via their effect on the current-voltage characteristic of a voltage-biased Josephson junction connected to the transmission line. Considering the Cooper pair box to be in the weakly anharmonic regime, we find that the dc current through the probe junction yields features around the voltages 2eV=n ωs, where ωs is the plasma frequency of the superconducting circuit. The features at n≥2 are a direct signature of the photon-photon interaction in the system.Item Open Access Dynamics of Electronic Transport in Spatially-extended Systems with Negative Differential Conductivity(2010) Xu, HuidongNegative differential conductivity (NDC) is a nonlinear property of electronic transport for high electric field strength found in materials and devices such as semiconductor superlattices, bulk GaAs and Gunn diodes. In spatially extended systems, NDC can cause rich dynamics such as static and mobile field domains and moving charge fronts. In this thesis, these phenomena are studied theoretically and numerically for semiconductor superlattices. Two classes of models are considered: a discrete model based on sequential resonant tunneling between neighboring quantum wells is used to described charge transport in weakly-coupled superlattices, and a continuum model based on the miniband transport is used to describe charge transport strongly-coupled superlattices.

The superlattice is a spatially extended nonlinear system consisting a periodic arrangement of quantum wells (e.g., GaAs) and barriers (e.g., AlAs). Using a discrete model and only considering one spatial dimension, we find that the boundary condition at the injecting contact has a great influence on the dynamical behavior for both fixed voltage and transient response. Static or moving field domains are usually inevitable in this system. In order to suppress field domains, we add a side shunting layer parallel to the growth direction of the superlattice. In this case, the model includes both vertical and lateral spatial degrees of freedom. We first study a shunted weakly-coupled superlattice for a wide range of material parameters. The field domains are found to be suppressed for superlattices with small lateral size and good connection between the shunt and the quantum wells of the superlattice. As the lateral size of the superlattice increases, the uniform field configuration loses its stability to either static or dynamic field domains, regardless of shunt properties. A lower quality shunt generally leads to regular and chaotic current oscillations and complex spatio-temporal dynamics in the field profile. Bifurcations separating static and dynamic behaviors are characterized and found to be dependent on the shunt properties. Then we adopt the model to study the shunted strongly-coupled superlattice with the continuum model. Key structural parameters associated with both the shunt layer and SL are identified for which the shunt layer stabilizes a uniform electric field profile. These results support the possibility to realize a SL-based THz oscillator with a carefully designed structure.

Another important behavior of the static field domains in the weakly-coupled superlattice is bistability, i.e., two possible states (i.e., electric field configurations) for a single voltage. Noise can drive the system from one of these states (the metastable state) to the other one (the globally stable state). The process of escape from the metastable state can be viewed as a stochastic first-passage process in a high-dimensional system that possesses complex stability eigenvalues and for which a global potential energy function does not exist. This process is simulated using a stochastic differential equation system which incorporates shot noise. The mean switching time τ is fitted to an exponential expression e(Vth-V)α/D, where V

_{th}denotes the voltage at the end of the current branch. The exponent α in the fitting curve deviates from 1.5 which is predicted for a generic one dimensional system. We develop an algorithm to determine an effective locally valid potential. Principal component analysis is applied to find the most probable path for switching from the metastable current state.Item Open Access Electron Correlations and Spin in Asymmetric GaAs Quantum Point Contacts and Signatures of Structural Transitions in Hall Effect of FeSe(2010) Wu, Phillip M.The 1D Wigner crystal is a long sought after strongly correlated quantum state. Here we present electronic transport data of asymmetric quantum point contacts (QPC) tuned to the spin-incoherent regime, which provides evidence for achieving the 1D Wigner state. Our result can be distinguished in several particularly noticeable ways. First, we utilize an asymmetric point contact geometry that is simple to fabricate and has not been studied previously. We are able to tune to the conductance anomalies simply by asymmetrically applying voltages to the gates. Second, we observe clear suppression of the first plateau and direct jumps to the second in these asymmetric QPCs at liquid helium temperatures (4.2 K). Such conductance behavior is indicative of Wigner crystal row formation.

This thesis suggests that the novel geometry and gating scheme allows for a novel way to search for strongly correlated electronic behavior in quasi-1D quantum wires. A key finding is the importance of asymmetric QPCs for observation of anomalous transport characteristics. We have observed a strongly developed e2/h feature under asymmetric voltage gating and zero applied magnetic field. Such a feature is attributed to enhanced spin energies in the system. We believe the asymmetric design allows for a relaxing of the 1D confinement so that a quasi-1D electron conformation develops, which in turn allows for various possible magnetic states. In addition, by optimally tuning the confinement potential, we observe an unexpected suppression of the 2e2/h plateau. This provides further evidence for unusual electron arrangements in the asymmetric quantum point contact.

I also discuss transport studies on the new FeSe superconductor. Our collaboration discovered the superconducting β-FeSe compound with a Tc approximately 8 K. The crystal lattice structure of β-FeSe is by far the simplest of the Fe superconductors. One of the most interesting observations regarding FeSe is that the crystal structure undergoes a structural transition at approximately 105 K from tetragonal to orthorhombic (or triclinic) symmetry. We believe this structural transition to be closely related to the origin of superconductivity in this class of materials.

Transport studies also seem to support this claim. From Hall effect measurements of bulk FeSe, we find that FeSe is likely a two band (electron and hole) superconductor, which suggests it is quite different from the cuprates, and that very unconventional superconducting mechanisms are at play. The temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient is measured, and found to rapidly increase below 105 K. This suggests the scattering time related to hole bands dominate the transport at low temperature. As there is no magnetic ordering observed at low temperature, we do not expect the scattering from random Fe magnetic impurities to play a significant role in the enhanced hole scattering times. Thus, we speculate that this change is related to the structural transition observed.

Item Open Access Fluctuation Effects in One-Dimensional Superconducting Nanowires(2010) Li, PengThis thesis focuses on the fluctuation in the switching current $I_s$ of superconducting Al nanowires. We discovered that the maximum current which nanowires can support is limited by a single phase slip at low temperature.

Al superconducting nanowires less than 10 nm wide were fabricated based on a MBE grown InP ridge template in an edge-on geometry. The method utilizes a special substrate featuring a high standing 8nm-wide InP ridge. A thin layer of Al was evaporated on the substrate and Al on the ridge formed nanowires.

The fluctuation effects starts to dominate in the nanowire due to reduced energy barrier. One of such effects is the phase slip. The phase slip is a topological event, during which the superconducting phase between two superconducting electrodes changes by $2\pi$. The phase slip broadens the normal-superconducting transition. Part of the nanowire becomes normal during the phase slip and forms a normal core. The normal core generates heat and causes the premature switching in superconducting nanowires.

The nanowire becomes superconducting below the critical temperature $T_c$. The superconducting-normal transition was studied in the thesis. The transition of nanowires with superconducting leads qualitatively fits the thermally activated phase slip (TAPS) theory. On the other hand, the transition of the nanowires with normal leads showed a resistive tail due to the inverse-proximity effect.

The nanowire switches from the superconducting state to the normal state as the current is increased. Ideally, the maximum current is set by a pair-breaking mechanism, by which the kinetic energy of quasi-particles exceeds the bonding energy of Cooper pairs. This is called the critical current, $I_c$. In practice, the measured maximum current, called the switching current $I_s$, cannot reach $I_c$ because of the phase slip.

$I_s$ shows stochasticity due to the phase slip. For the nanowires with superconducting leads, the average $I_s$ approximately follows but falls below $I_c$. The fluctuation in $I_s$ shows non-monotonic behavior, in contrast to other studies. The fluctuation first increases and then decreases rapidly with increasing temperature. The fluctuation behavior is consistent with a scenario where the switch is triggered by a single phase slip at low temperature while by multiple phase slips at higher temperature. Thermal activation of phase slips appears dominant at most temperatures. However, in the thinnest nanowire, the saturation of the fluctuation at low temperature indicates that the phase slips by macroscopic quantum tunneling.

The superconducting nanowires with normal leads were also studied. One of the distinctive properties of our nanowire (the critical field of 1D nanowire is 10 times larger than that of a 2D superconducting film) allowed us to study the same nanowire with different leads (superconducting or normal). Both the average $I_s$ and the fluctuation in $I_s$ differed qualitatively depending on whether the leads were superconducting or normal. The temperature dependence of the average $I_s$ followed the $I_c$ of the Josephson junction instead of the phenomenological pair-breaking $I_c$. The difference was found to depend on both the temperature (close to $T_c$ or 0) and the length (shorter or longer than the charge imbalance length). Our study also showed that nonlinear current-voltage (IV) curves were observed due to the inverse-proximity effect.

Item Open Access Generalized multipolaron expansion for the spin-boson model: Environmental entanglement and the biased two-state system(Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 2014-08-07) Bera, S; Nazir, A; Chin, AW; Baranger, HU; Florens, SWe develop a systematic variational coherent-state expansion for the many-body ground state of the spin-boson model, in which a quantum two-level system is coupled to a continuum of harmonic oscillators. Energetic constraints at the heart of this technique are rationalized in terms of polarons (displacements of the bath states in agreement with classical expectations) and antipolarons (counterdisplacements due to quantum tunneling effects). We present a comprehensive study of the ground-state two-level system population and coherence as a function of tunneling amplitude, dissipation strength, and bias (akin to asymmetry of the double-well potential defining the two-state system). The entanglement among the different environmental modes is investigated by looking at spectroscopic signatures of the bipartite entanglement entropy between a given environmental mode and all the other modes. We observe a drastic change in behavior of this entropy for increasing dissipation, indicative of the entangled nature of the environmental states. In addition, the entropy spreads over a large energy range at strong dissipation, a testimony to the wide entanglement window characterizing the underlying Kondo state. Finally, comparisons to accurate numerical renormalization-group calculations and to the exact Bethe ansatz solution of the model demonstrate the rapid convergence of our variationally optimized multipolaron expansion, suggesting that it should also be a useful tool for dissipative models of greater complexity, as relevant for numerous systems of interest in quantum physics and chemistry. © 2014 American Physical Society.Item Open Access Investigation of Supercurrent in the Quantum Hall Regime in Graphene Josephson Junctions(Journal of Low Temperature Physics, 2018-06-01) Draelos, A; Wei, MT; Seredinski, A; Ke, C; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Yamamoto, M; Tarucha, S; Borzenets, I; Amet, F; Finkelstein, G© 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. In this study, we examine multiple encapsulated graphene Josephson junctions to determine which mechanisms may be responsible for the supercurrent observed in the quantum Hall (QH) regime. Rectangular junctions with various widths and lengths were studied to identify which parameters affect the occurrence of QH supercurrent. We also studied additional samples where the graphene region is extended beyond the contacts on one side, making that edge of the mesa significantly longer than the opposite edge. This is done in order to distinguish two potential mechanisms: (a) supercurrents independently flowing along both non-contacted edges of graphene mesa, and (b) opposite sides of the mesa being coupled by hybrid electron–hole modes flowing along the superconductor/graphene boundary. The supercurrent appears suppressed in extended junctions, suggesting the latter mechanism.Item Open Access Mesoscopic Anderson box: Connecting weak to strong coupling(Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 2012-04-27) Liu, DE; Burdin, S; Baranger, HU; Ullmo, DWe study the Anderson impurity problem in a mesoscopic setting, namely the "Anderson box," in which the impurity is coupled to finite reservoir having a discrete spectrum and large sample-to-sample mesoscopic fluctuations. Note that both the weakly coupled and strong coupling Anderson impurity problems are characterized by a Fermi-liquid theory with weakly interacting quasiparticles. We study how the statistical fluctuations in these two problems are connected, using random matrix theory and the slave boson mean-field approximation (SBMFA). First, for a resonant level model such as results from the SBMFA, we find the joint distribution of energy levels with and without the resonant level present. Second, if only energy levels within the Kondo resonance are considered, the distributions of perturbed levels collapse to universal forms for both orthogonal and unitary ensembles for all values of the coupling. These universal curves are described well by a simple Wigner-surmise-type toy model. Third, we study the fluctuations of the mean-field parameters in the SBMFA, finding that they are small. Finally, the change in the intensity of an eigenfunction at an arbitrary point is studied, such as is relevant in conductance measurements. We find that the introduction of the strongly coupled impurity considerably changes the wave function but that a substantial correlation remains. © 2012 American Physical Society.Item Open Access Mesoscopic fluctuations in the Fermi-liquid regime of the Kondo problem(European Physical Journal B, 2013-08-01) Ullmo, D; Liu, DE; Burdin, S; Baranger, HUWe consider the low temperature regime of the mesoscopic Kondo problem, and in particular the relevance of a Fermi-liquid description of this regime. Mesoscopic fluctuations of both the quasiparticle energy levels and the corresponding wavefunctions are large in this case. These mesoscopic fluctuations make the traditional approach to Fermi-liquids impracticable, as it assumes the existence of a limited number of relevant parameters. We show here how this difficulty can be overcome and discuss the relationship between the resulting Fermi-liquid description "à la Nozières" and the mean field slave fermion approximation. © 2013 EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Item Open Access Nonequilibrium quantum transport through a dissipative resonant level(Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 2013-06-21) Chung, CH; Le Hur, K; Finkelstein, G; Vojta, M; Wölfle, PThe resonant-level model represents a paradigmatic quantum system which serves as a basis for many other quantum impurity models. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the nonequilibrium transport near a quantum phase transition in a spinless dissipative resonant-level model, extending earlier work. A detailed derivation of a rigorous mapping of our system onto an effective Kondo model is presented. A controlled energy-dependent renormalization-group approach is applied to compute the nonequilibrium current in the presence of a finite bias voltage V. In the linear-response regime V→0, the system exhibits as a function of the dissipative strength a localized-delocalized quantum transition of the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) type. We address fundamental issues of the nonequilibrium transport near the quantum phase transition: Does the bias voltage play the same role as temperature to smear out the transition? What is the scaling of the nonequilibrium conductance near the transition? At finite temperatures, we show that the conductance follows the equilibrium scaling for VT. We furthermore provide different signatures of the transition in the finite-frequency current noise and ac conductance via a recently developed functional renormalization group (FRG) approach. The generalization of our analysis to nonequilibrium transport through a resonant level coupled to two chiral Luttinger liquid leads, generated by fractional quantum Hall edge states, is discussed. Our work on the dissipative resonant level has direct relevance to experiments on a quantum dot coupled to a resistive environment, such as H. Mebrahtu,. © 2013 American Physical Society.Item Open Access Photoexcited Emission Efficiencies of Zinc Oxide(2009) Foreman, John VincentOptoelectronic properties of the II-VI semiconductor zinc oxide (ZnO) have been studied scientifically for almost 60 years; however, many fundamental questions remain unanswered about its two primary emission bands--the exciton-related luminescence in the ultraviolet and the defect-related emission band centered in the green portion of the visible spectrum. The work in this dissertation was motivated by the surprising optical properties of a ZnO nanowire sample grown by the group of Prof. Jie Liu, Department of Chemistry, Duke University. We found that this nanowire sample exhibited defect-related green/white emission of unprecedented intensity relative to near-band-edge luminescence. The experimental work comprising this dissertation was designed to explain the optical properties of this ZnO nanowire sample. Understanding the physics underlying such exceptional intensity of green emission addresses many of the open questions of ZnO research and assesses the possibility of using ZnO nanostructures as an ultraviolet-excited, broadband visible phosphor.

The goal of this dissertation is to provide insight into what factors influence the radiative and nonradiative recombination efficiencies of ZnO by characterizing simultaneously the optical properties of the near-band-edge ultraviolet and the defect-related green emission bands. Specifically, we seek to understand the mechanisms of ultraviolet and green emission, the mechanism of energy transfer between them, and the evolution of their emission efficiencies with parameters such as excitation density and sample temperature. These fundamental but unanswered questions of ZnO emission are addressed here by using a novel combination of ultrafast spectroscopic techniques in conjunction with a systematic set of ZnO samples. Through this systematic investigation, ZnO may be realistically assessed as a potential green/white light phosphor.

Photoluminescence techniques are used to characterize the thermal quenching behavior of both emission bands in micrometer-scale ZnO powders. Green luminescence quenching is described by activation energies associated with bound excitons. We find that green luminescence efficiency is maximized when excitons are localized in the vicinity of green-emitting defects. Subsequent photoluminescence excitation measurements performed at multiple temperatures independently verified that green band photoluminescence intensity directly correlates with the photogenerated exciton population.

The spatial distributions of green-emitting defects and nonradiative traps are elucidated by an innovative combination of quantum efficiency and time-integrated/resolved photoluminescence measurements. By combining these techniques for the first time, we take advantage of the drastically different absorption coefficients for one- and two-photon excitations to provide details about the types and concentrations of surface and bulk defects and to demonstrate the non-negligible effects of reabsorption. A comparison of results for unannealed and annealed ZnO powders indicates that the annealing process creates a high density of green-emitting defects near the surface of the sample while simultaneously reducing the density of bulk nonradiative traps. These experimental results are discussed in the context of a simple rate equation model that accounts for the quantum efficiencies of both emission bands.

For both femtosecond pulsed and continuous-wave excitations, the green band efficiency is found to decrease with increasing excitation density--from 35% to 5% for pulsed excitation spanning 1-1000 uJ/cm2, and from 60% to 5% for continuous excitation in the range 0.01-10 W/cm2. On the other hand, near-band-edge emission efficiency increases from 0.4% to 25% for increasing pulsed excitation density and from 0.1% to 0.6% for continuous excitation. It is shown experimentally that these changes in efficiency correspond to a reduction in exciton formation efficiency. The differences in efficiencies for pulsed versus continuous-wave excitation are described by changes in the relative rates of exciton luminescence and exciton capture at green defects based on an extended rate equation model that accounts for the excitation density dependence of both luminescence bands.

In using a systematic set of ZnO samples and a novel combination of optical techniques to characterize them, this body of work presents a comprehensive and detailed physical picture of recombination mechanisms in ZnO. The insight provided by these results has immediate implications for material growth/processing techniques and should help material growers control the relative efficiencies of ultraviolet, green/visible, and nonradiative recombination channels in ZnO.

Item Open Access Retrapping current, self-heating, and hysteretic current-voltage characteristics in ultranarrow superconducting aluminum nanowires(Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 2011-11-08) Li, P; Wu, PM; Bomze, Y; Borzenets, IV; Finkelstein, G; Chang, AMHysteretic I-V (current-voltage) curves are studied in narrow Al nanowires. The nanowires have a cross section as small as 50 nm2. We focus on the retrapping current in a down-sweep of the current, at which a nanowire re-enters the superconducting state from a normal state. The retrapping current is found to be significantly smaller than the switching current at which the nanowire switches into the normal state from a superconducting state during a current up-sweep. For wires of different lengths, we analyze the heat removal due to various processes, including electron and phonon processes. For a short wire 1.5μm in length, electronic thermal conduction is effective; for longer wires 10μm in length, phonon conduction becomes important. We demonstrate that the measured retrapping current as a function of temperature can be quantitatively accounted for by the self-heating occurring in the normal portions of the nanowires to better than 20% accuracy. For the phonon processes, the extracted thermal conduction parameters support the notion of a reduced phase-space below three dimensions, consistent with the phonon thermal wavelength having exceeded the lateral dimensions at temperatures below ∼1.3 K. Nevertheless, surprisingly the best fit was achieved with a functional form corresponding to three-dimensional phonons, albeit requiring parameters far exceeding known values in the literature. © 2011 American Physical Society.Item Open Access Stabilizing spin coherence through environmental entanglement in strongly dissipative quantum systems(Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 2014-03-18) Bera, S; Florens, S; Baranger, HU; Roch, N; Nazir, A; Chin, AWThe key feature of a quantum spin coupled to a harmonic bath - a model dissipative quantum system - is competition between oscillator potential energy and spin tunneling rate. We show that these opposing tendencies cause environmental entanglement through superpositions of adiabatic and antiadiabatic oscillator states, which then stabilizes the spin coherence against strong dissipation. This insight motivates a fast-converging variational coherent-state expansion for the many-body ground state of the spin-boson model, which we substantiate via numerical quantum tomography. © 2014 American Physical Society.Item Open Access Subkelvin lateral thermal transport in diffusive graphene(Physical Review B, 2019-03-29) Draelos, AW; Silverman, A; Eniwaye, B; Arnault, EG; Ke, CT; Wei, MT; Vlassiouk, I; Borzenets, IV; Amet, F; Finkelstein, G© 2019 American Physical Society. In this work, we report on hot carrier diffusion in graphene across large enough length scales that the carriers are not thermalized across the crystal. The carriers are injected into graphene at one site and their thermal transport is studied as a function of applied power and distance from the heating source, up to tens of micrometers away. Superconducting contacts prevent out-diffusion of hot carriers to isolate the electron-phonon coupling as the sole channel for thermal relaxation. As local thermometers, we use the amplitude of the universal conductance fluctuations, which varies monotonically as a function of temperature. By measuring the electron temperature simultaneously along the length we observe a thermal gradient which results from the competition between electron-phonon cooling and lateral heat flow.Item Open Access Transport signatures of Majorana quantum criticality realized by dissipative resonant tunneling(Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 2014-06-27) Zheng, H; Florens, S; Baranger, HUWe consider theoretically the transport properties of a spinless resonant electronic level coupled to strongly dissipative leads, in the regime of circuit impedance near the resistance quantum. Using the Luttinger liquid analogy, one obtains an effective Hamiltonian expressed in terms of interacting Majorana fermions, in which all environmental degrees of freedom (leads and electromagnetic modes) are encapsulated in a single fermionic bath. General transport equations for this system are then derived in terms of the Majorana T-matrix. A perturbative treatment of the Majorana interaction term yields the appearance of a marginal, linear dependence of the conductance on temperature when the system is tuned to its quantum critical point, in agreement with recent experimental observations. We investigate in detail the different crossovers involved in the problem, and analyze the role of the interaction terms in the transport scaling functions. In particular, we show that single barrier scaling applies when the system is slightly tuned away from its Majorana critical point, strengthening the general picture of dynamical Coulomb blockade. © 2014 American Physical Society.Item Open Access Tunable quantum phase transitions in a resonant level coupled to two dissipative baths(Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 2014-02-18) Liu, DE; Zheng, H; Finkelstein, G; Baranger, HUWe study tunneling through a resonant level connected to two dissipative bosonic baths: one is the resistive environment of the source and drain leads, while the second comes from coupling to potential fluctuations on a resistive gate. We show that several quantum phase transitions (QPT) occur in such a model, transitions which emulate those found in interacting systems such as Luttinger liquids or Kondo systems. We first use bosonization to map this dissipative resonant level model to a resonant level in a Luttinger liquid, one with, curiously, two interaction parameters. Drawing on methods for analyzing Luttinger liquids at both weak and strong coupling, we obtain the phase diagram. For strong dissipation, a Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless QPT separates strong-coupling and weak-coupling (charge localized) phases. In the source-drain symmetric case, all relevant backscattering processes disappear at strong coupling, leading to perfect transmission at zero temperature. In fact, a QPT occurs as a function of the coupling asymmetry or energy of the resonant level: the two phases are (i) the system is cut into two disconnected pieces (zero transmission), or (ii) the system is a single connected piece with perfect transmission, except for a disconnected fractional degree of freedom. The latter arises from the competition between the two fermionic leads (source and drain), as in the two-channel Kondo effect. © 2014 American Physical Society.