# Browsing by Subject "Physics, Elementary Particles and High Energy"

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Item Open Access Characterizations and Diagnostics of Compton Light Source(2009) Sun, ChangchunThe High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS) at Duke University is a world class Compton light source facility. At the HIGS, a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) beam is Compton scattered with an electron beam in the Duke storage ring to produce an intense, highly polarized, and nearly monoenergetic gamma-ray beam with a tunable energy from about 1 MeV to 100 MeV. This unique gamma-ray beam has been used in a wide range of basic and application research fields from nuclear physics to astrophysics, from medical research to homeland security and industrial applications.

The capability of accurately predicting the spatial, spectral and temporal characteristics of a Compton gamma-ray beam is crucial for the optimization of the operation of a Compton light source as well as for the applications utilizing the Compton beam. In this dissertation, we have successfully developed two approaches, an analytical calculation method and a Monte Carlo simulation technique, to study the Compton scattering process. Using these two approaches, we have characterized the HIGS beams with varying electron beam parameters as well as different collimation conditions. Based upon the Monte Carlo simulation, an end-to-end spectrum reconstruction method has been developed to analyze the measured energy spectrum of a HIGS beam. With this end-to-end method, the underlying energy distribution of the HIGS beam can be uncovered with a high degree of accuracy using its measured spectrum. To measure the transverse profile of the HIGS beam, we have developed a CCD based gamma-ray beam imaging system with a sub-mm spatial resolution and a high contrast sensitivity. This imaging system has been routinely used to align experimental apparatus with the HIGS beam for nuclear physics research.

To determine the energy distribution of the HIGS beam, it is important to know the energy distribution of the electron beam used in the collision. The electron beam energy and energy spread can be measured using the Compton scattering technique. In order to use this technique, we have developed a new fitting model directly based upon the Compton scattering cross section while taking into account the electron-beam emittance and gamma-beam collimation effects. With this model, we have successfully carried out a precise energy measurement of the electron beam in the Duke storage ring.

Alternatively, the electron beam energy can be measured using the Resonant Spin Depolarization technique, which requires a polarized electron beam. The radiative polarization of an electron beam in the Duke storage ring has been studied as part of this dissertation program. From electron-beam lifetime measurements, the equilibrium degree of polarization of the electron beam has been successfully determined. With the polarized electron beam, we will be able to apply the Resonant Spin Depolarization technique to accurately determine the electron beam energy. This on-going research is of great importance to our continued development of the HIGS facility.

Item Open Access Effective Field Theory for Doubly Heavy Baryons and Lattice QCD(2009) Hu, JieIn this thesis, we study effective field theories for doubly heavy baryons and lattice QCD. We construct a chiral Lagrangian for doubly heavy baryons and heavy mesons that is invariant under heavy quark-diquark symmetry at leading order and includes the leading O(1/m_Q ) symmetry violating operators. The theory is used to predict the electromagnetic decay width of the J = 3/2 member of the ground state doubly heavy baryon doublet. Numerical estimates are provided for doubly charm baryons. We also calculate chiral corrections to doubly heavy baryon masses and strong decay widths of low lying excited doubly heavy baryons. We derive the couplings of heavy diquarks to weak currents in the limit of heavy quark-diquark symmetry, and construct the chiral Lagrangian for doubly heavy baryons coupled to weak currents. Chiral corrections to doubly heavy baryon zero-recoil semileptonic decay for both unquenched and partially quenched QCD are calculated. This theory is used to derive chiral extrapolation formulae for measurements of the doubly heavy baryon zero-recoil semileptonic decay form factors in lattice QCD simulations. Additionally, we study the pion physics on lattice using chiral perturbation theory. For finite volume field theories with discrete translational invariance, conserved currents can obtain additional corrections from infrared effects. We demonstrate this for pions using chiral perturbation theory coupled to electromagnetism in a periodic box. Gauge invariant single particle effective theories are constructed to explain these results. We use chiral perturbation theory to study the extraction of pion electromagnetic polarizabilities from lattice QCD. Chiral extrapolation formulae are derived for partially quenched and quenched QCD simulations. We determine finite volume corrections to the Compton scattering tensor of pions.

Item Open Access Measurement of Z +γ Production and Search for Anomalous Triple Gauge Couplings in Proton-antiproton Collisions at √S = 1.96 Tev(2008-03-19) Deng, JianrongWe present a measurement of ppbar->Zγ + X -> e^{+}e^{-}γ + X production using proton-antiproton collision data collected at the Collider Detector at Fermilab at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. Zγ production provides a direct test of the triple neutral gauge couplings. A measurement of Zγ production cross section and search for anomalous ZZγ and Zγγ couplings are presented. The data presented are from 1.1 fb^{-1}of ppbar integrated luminosity collected at the CDF Detector. Electrons from Z decays are selected with E_{t}> 20 GeV. Photons (E_{t}> 7 GeV) are required to be well-separated from the electrons. There are 390 eeγ candidate events found with 1.1 fb^{-1}of data, compared to the SM prediction of 375.3 Ã Â± 25.2 events. The Standard Model prediction for the cross section for ppbar-> e^{+}e^{-}γ + X production at √s = 1.96 TeV is 4.5 Ã Â± 0.4 pb. The measured cross section is 4.7 Ã Â± 0.6 pb. The cross section and kinematic distributions of the eeγ events are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Limits on the ZZγ and Zγγ couplings are extracted using the photon E_{t}distribution of eeγ events with M_{eeγ}> 100 GeV/c^{2}. These are the first limits measured using CDF Run II data. These limits provide important test of the interaction of the photon and the Z boson.Item Open Access The Response of Hot QCD Matter to Hard Partons(2009) Neufeld, Richard BryonThe quark gluon plasma (QGP) forms when matter governed by quantum chromodynamics (QCD) undergoes a transition at high temperature or high density from hadronic bound states to deconfined quarks and gluons. The QGP at high temperature is believed to be experimentally accessible in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, such as those done at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab and in the near future at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The results obtained so far reveal the production of energetic (hard) partons in the early stages of a heavy-ion collision which propagate through the plasma. Results also show that the QGP produced at RHIC is a nearly ideal fluid and that hard partons may generate conical, Mach-like, disturbances in the QGP.

This thesis uses theoretical methods to address how the QGP responds to a hard parton that propagates through the plasma and contains the first rigorous derivation of how a hard parton deposits energy and momentum in a QGP which lead to the formation of a Mach cone. A comparison of experimental results with the theory introduced in this thesis could shed light on important properties of the QGP such as its equation of state and transport coefficients like viscosity. I investigate this problem by evaluating the source of energy and momentum generated by the hard parton in the QGP. Formalisms are developed and applied for evaluating the source of energy and momentum in perturbation theory with three different methods: classical kinetic theory, finite temperature field theory, and by including the energy lost by the hard parton to radiation. Having obtained the source of energy and momentum generated by the hard parton, I evaluate the medium response using linearized hydrodynamics. My results show Mach cone formation in the medium. I compare the medium response for different viscosities and speeds of sound, from which I find the Mach cone weakens and broadens as viscosity is increased. By studying the time evolution of the medium response once the source of energy and momentum is turned off, which occurs in a heavy-ion collision during the hadronic phase, I find that the conical disturbance is enhanced relative to diffusive contributions over a time period of several fm/c.