# Browsing by Subject "cs.IT"

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Item Open Access Expression of Fractals Through Neural Network FunctionsDym, N; Sober, B; Daubechies, ITo help understand the underlying mechanisms of neural networks (NNs), several groups have, in recent years, studied the number of linear regions $\ell$ of piecewise linear functions generated by deep neural networks (DNN). In particular, they showed that $\ell$ can grow exponentially with the number of network parameters $p$, a property often used to explain the advantages of DNNs over shallow NNs in approximating complicated functions. Nonetheless, a simple dimension argument shows that DNNs cannot generate all piecewise linear functions with $\ell$ linear regions as soon as $\ell > p$. It is thus natural to seek to characterize specific families of functions with $\ell$ linear regions that can be constructed by DNNs. Iterated Function Systems (IFS) generate sequences of piecewise linear functions $F_k$ with a number of linear regions exponential in $k$. We show that, under mild assumptions, $F_k$ can be generated by a NN using only $\mathcal{O}(k)$ parameters. IFS are used extensively to generate, at low computational cost, natural-looking landscape textures in artificial images. They have also been proposed for compression of natural images, albeit with less commercial success. The surprisingly good performance of this fractal-based compression suggests that our visual system may lock in, to some extent, on self-similarities in images. The combination of this phenomenon with the capacity, demonstrated here, of DNNs to efficiently approximate IFS may contribute to the success of DNNs, particularly striking for image processing tasks, as well as suggest new algorithms for representing self similarities in images based on the DNN mechanism.Item Open Access Scaling Limit: Exact and Tractable Analysis of Online Learning Algorithms with Applications to Regularized Regression and PCAWang, Chuang; Mattingly, Jonathan; Lu, Yue MWe present a framework for analyzing the exact dynamics of a class of online learning algorithms in the high-dimensional scaling limit. Our results are applied to two concrete examples: online regularized linear regression and principal component analysis. As the ambient dimension tends to infinity, and with proper time scaling, we show that the time-varying joint empirical measures of the target feature vector and its estimates provided by the algorithms will converge weakly to a deterministic measured-valued process that can be characterized as the unique solution of a nonlinear PDE. Numerical solutions of this PDE can be efficiently obtained. These solutions lead to precise predictions of the performance of the algorithms, as many practical performance metrics are linear functionals of the joint empirical measures. In addition to characterizing the dynamic performance of online learning algorithms, our asymptotic analysis also provides useful insights. In particular, in the high-dimensional limit, and due to exchangeability, the original coupled dynamics associated with the algorithms will be asymptotically "decoupled", with each coordinate independently solving a 1-D effective minimization problem via stochastic gradient descent. Exploiting this insight for nonconvex optimization problems may prove an interesting line of future research.Item Open Access Stable Phase Retrieval from Locally Stable and Conditionally Connected Measurements.(CoRR, 2020) Cheng, C; Daubechies, I; Dym, N; Lu, JThis paper is concerned with stable phase retrieval for a family of phase retrieval models we name "locally stable and conditionally connected" (LSCC) measurement schemes. For every signal $f$, we associate a corresponding weighted graph $G_f$, defined by the LSCC measurement scheme, and show that the phase retrievability of the signal $f$ is determined by the connectivity of $G_f$. We then characterize the phase retrieval stability of the signal $f$ by two measures that are commonly used in graph theory to quantify graph connectivity: the Cheeger constant of $G_f$ for real valued signals, and the algebraic connectivity of $G_f$ for complex valued signals. We use our results to study the stability of two phase retrieval models that can be cast as LSCC measurement schemes, and focus on understanding for which signals the "curse of dimensionality" can be avoided. The first model we discuss is a finite-dimensional model for locally supported measurements such as the windowed Fourier transform. For signals "without large holes", we show the stability constant exhibits only a mild polynomial growth in the dimension, in stark contrast with the exponential growth which uniform stability constants tend to suffer from; more precisely, in $R^d$ the constant grows proportionally to $d^{1/2}$, while in $C^d$ it grows proportionally to $d$. We also show the growth of the constant in the complex case cannot be reduced, suggesting that complex phase retrieval is substantially more difficult than real phase retrieval. The second model we consider is an infinite-dimensional phase retrieval problem in a principal shift invariant space. We show that despite the infinite dimensionality of this model, signals with monotone exponential decay will have a finite stability constant. In contrast, the stability bound provided by our results will be infinite if the signal's decay is polynomial.