A Study of Non-Smooth Impacting Behaviors
The dynamics of impacting components is of particular interest to engineers due to concerns about noise and wear, but is particularly difficult to study due to impact's non-linear nature. To begin transferring concepts studied purely analytically to the world of physical mechanisms, four experiments are outlined, and important non-linear concepts highlighted with these systems. A linear oscillator with a kicked impact, an impacting forced pendulum, two impacting forced pendulums, and a cam follower pair are studied experimentally, with complementary numerical results.
Some important ideas highlighted are limit cycles, basins of attraction with many wells, grazing, various forms of coexistence, super-persistent chaotic transients, and liftoff. These concepts are explored using a variety of non-linear tools such as time lag embedding and stochastic interrogation, and discussions of their intricacies when used in non-smooth systems yield important observations for the experimentalist studying impacting systems.
The focus is on experimental results with numerical validation, and spends much time discussing identification of these concepts from an experiment-first mindset, rather than the more traditional analytical-first approach. As such a large volume of experimentally important information on topics such as transducers and forcing mechanism construction are included in the appendices.
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