Evidence that the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii may have evolved in Africa.
Repository Usage Stats
Most of the species of fungi that cause disease in mammals, including Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A), are exogenous and non-contagious. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is associated worldwide with avian and arboreal habitats. This airborne, opportunistic pathogen is profoundly neurotropic and the leading cause of fungal meningitis. Patients with HIV/AIDS have been ravaged by cryptococcosis--an estimated one million new cases occur each year, and mortality approaches 50%. Using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, we present evidence that C. neoformans var. grubii may have evolved from a diverse population in southern Africa. Our ecological studies support the hypothesis that a few of these strains acquired a new environmental reservoir, the excreta of feral pigeons (Columba livia), and were globally dispersed by the migration of birds and humans. This investigation also discovered a novel arboreal reservoir for highly diverse strains of C. neoformans var. grubii that are restricted to southern Africa, the mopane tree (Colophospermum mopane). This finding may have significant public health implications because these primal strains have optimal potential for evolution and because mopane trees contribute to the local economy as a source of timber, folkloric remedies and the edible mopane worm.
Molecular Sequence Data
Published Version (Please cite this version)10.1371/journal.pone.0019688
Publication InfoCarbone, I; Govender, NP; Litvintseva, AP; Mitchell, Thomas Greenfield; Rossouw, J; & Thakur, R (2011). Evidence that the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii may have evolved in Africa. PLoS One, 6(5). pp. e19688. 10.1371/journal.pone.0019688. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/11064.
This is constructed from limited available data and may be imprecise. To cite this article, please review & use the official citation provided by the journal.
More InfoShow full item record
Associate Professor Emeritus in Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
Among patients with AIDS, leukemia or other cancers, organ or bone marrow transplants, and similar immunocompromising risk factors, the incidence of opportunistic mycoses and the number of different fungal pathogens are increasing dramatically. For many of these fungi, the definition of a species and the recognition of pathogen are highly problematic. Conventional methods of identification are based on morphological and physiological characteristics and are often time-consuming, difficult