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Evaluation of a field appropriate membrane filtration method for the detection of Vibrio cholerae for the measurement of biosand filter performance in the Artibonite Valley, Haiti.

dc.contributor.author Gunsch, Claudia K
dc.contributor.author Thomson, AA
dc.coverage.spatial Netherlands
dc.date.accessioned 2016-01-06T17:41:31Z
dc.date.issued 2015-08
dc.identifier http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26135641
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11462
dc.description.abstract Biosand filters in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti, the epicenter of the cholera epidemic that began in October 2010, were tested for total coliform and Vibrio cholerae removal efficiencies. While coliform are often used as an indicator organism for pathogenic bacteria, a correlation has never been established linking the concentration of coliform and V. cholerae, the causative agent for cholera. Hence, a method for field enumeration of V. cholerae was developed and tested. To this end, a plate count test utilizing membrane filtration technique was developed to measure viable V. cholerae cell concentration in the field. Method accuracy was confirmed by comparing plate count concentrations to microscopic counts. Additionally, biosand filters were sampled and removal efficiencies of V. cholerae and coliform bacteria compared. The correlation between removal efficiency and time in operation, biofilm ("schmutzdecke") composition, and idle time was also investigated. The plate count method for V. cholerae was found to accurately reflect microscope counts and was shown to be effective in the field. Overall, coliform concentration was not an appropriate indicator of V. cholerae concentration. In 90% of the influent samples from the study, coliform underestimated V. cholerae concentration (n = 26). Furthermore, coliform removal efficiency was higher than for V. cholerae hence providing a conservative measurement. Finally, time in operation and idle time were found to be important parameters controlling performance. Overall, this method shows promise for field applications and should be expanded to additional studies to confirm its efficacy to test for V. cholerae in various source waters.
dc.language eng
dc.relation.ispartof Environ Monit Assess
dc.relation.isversionof 10.1007/s10661-015-4677-1
dc.subject Cholera
dc.subject Environmental Monitoring
dc.subject Filtration
dc.subject Haiti
dc.subject Membranes, Artificial
dc.subject Vibrio cholerae
dc.subject Water Microbiology
dc.title Evaluation of a field appropriate membrane filtration method for the detection of Vibrio cholerae for the measurement of biosand filter performance in the Artibonite Valley, Haiti.
dc.type Journal article
pubs.author-url http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26135641
pubs.begin-page 484
pubs.issue 8
pubs.organisational-group Civil and Environmental Engineering
pubs.organisational-group Duke
pubs.organisational-group Environmental Sciences and Policy
pubs.organisational-group Nicholas School of the Environment
pubs.organisational-group Pratt School of Engineering
pubs.publication-status Published
pubs.volume 187
dc.identifier.eissn 1573-2959


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