Evaluating the effects of image persistence on dynamic target acquisition in low frame rate virtual environments
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User performance in virtual environments with degraded visual conditions due to low frame rates is an interesting area of inquiry. Visual content shown in a low frame rate simulation has the quality of the original image, but persists for an extended period until the next frame is displayed (so-called high persistence - HP). An alternative, called low persistence (LP), involves displaying the rendered frame for a single display frame and blanking the screen while waiting for the next frame to be generated. Previous research has evaluated the usefulness of the LP technique in low frame rate simulations during a static target acquisition task. To gain greater knowledge about the LP technique, we have conducted a user study to evaluate user performance and learning during a dynamic target acquisition task. The acquisition task was evaluated under a high frame rate, (60 fps) condition, a traditional low frame rate HP condition (10 fps), and the experimental low frame rate LP technique. The task involved the acquisition of targets moving along several different trajectories, modeled after a shotgun trap shooting task. The results of our study indicate the LP condition approaches high frame rate performance within certain classes of target trajectories. Interestingly we also see that learning is consistent across conditions, indicating that it may not always be necessary to train under a visually high frame rate system to learn a particular task. We discuss implications of using the LP technique to mitigate low frame rate issues as well as for training both virtual and real world tasks.
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Associate Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Greg Appelbaum is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences in the Duke University School of Medicine. He is a member of the Brain Stimulation Division of Psychiatry, where he directs the Human Performance Optimization lab (Opti Lab) and the Brain Stimulation Research Center As a member
Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sci
Dr. Regis Kopper is an Assistant Research Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at Duke’s Pratt School of Engineering and the director of the Duke immersive Virtual Environment (DiVE). Dr. Kopper has experience in the design and evaluation of virtual reality systems in the areas of interaction design and modeling, virtual human interaction and in the evaluation of the benefits of immersive systems. At Duke, Dr. Kopper investigates how immersive virtual reality technolog
Adjunct Associate in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
W. H. Gardner, Jr. Associate Professor
We study circuits for cognition. Using a combination of neurophysiology and biomedical engineering, we focus on the interaction between brain areas during visual perception, decision-making, and motor planning. Specific projects include the role of frontal cortex in metacognition, the role of cerebellar-frontal circuits in action timing, the neural basis of "good enough" decision-making (satisficing), and the neural mechanisms of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).
David J. Zielinski is a virtual and augmented reality software developer at Duke University (2004-present). Currently a technology specialist for the Department of Art, Art History & Visual Studies (2018-present). Previously a member of the DiVE Virtual Reality Lab (2004-2018), under the direction of Regis Kopper (2013-2018) and Rachael Brady (2004-2012). He received his bachelors (2002) and masters (2004) degrees in Computer Science from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where
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