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The frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and future thoughts in relation to daydreaming, emotional distress, and age.

dc.contributor.author Berntsen, D
dc.contributor.author Rubin, David C
dc.contributor.author Salgado, S
dc.coverage.spatial United States
dc.date.accessioned 2016-05-15T16:02:17Z
dc.date.issued 2015-11
dc.identifier http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241025
dc.identifier S1053-8100(15)30010-6
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/10161/12024
dc.description.abstract We introduce a new scale, the Involuntary Autobiographical Memory Inventory (IAMI), for measuring the frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and involuntary future thoughts. Using the scale in relation to other psychometric and demographic measures provided three important, novel findings. First, the frequency of involuntary and voluntary memories and future thoughts are similarly related to general measures of emotional distress. This challenges the idea that the involuntary mode is uniquely associated with emotional distress. Second, the frequency of involuntary autobiographical remembering does not decline with age, whereas measures of daydreaming, suppression of unwanted thoughts and dissociative experiences all do. Thus, involuntary autobiographical remembering relates differently to aging than daydreaming and other forms of spontaneous and uncontrollable thoughts. Third, unlike involuntary autobiographical remembering, the frequency of future thoughts does decrease with age. This finding underscores the need for examining past and future mental time travel in relation to aging and life span development.
dc.language eng
dc.relation.ispartof Conscious Cogn
dc.relation.isversionof 10.1016/j.concog.2015.07.007
dc.subject Aging
dc.subject Daydreaming
dc.subject Emotional distress
dc.subject Episodic future thinking
dc.subject Involuntary autobiographical memories
dc.subject Adult
dc.subject Age Factors
dc.subject Fantasy
dc.subject Female
dc.subject Humans
dc.subject Male
dc.subject Memory, Episodic
dc.subject Middle Aged
dc.subject Psychometrics
dc.subject Reproducibility of Results
dc.subject Stress, Psychological
dc.subject Surveys and Questionnaires
dc.subject Thinking
dc.subject Time Factors
dc.subject Young Adult
dc.title The frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and future thoughts in relation to daydreaming, emotional distress, and age.
dc.type Journal article
pubs.author-url http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241025
pubs.begin-page 352
pubs.end-page 372
pubs.organisational-group Duke
pubs.organisational-group Duke Institute for Brain Sciences
pubs.organisational-group Institutes and Provost's Academic Units
pubs.organisational-group Psychology and Neuroscience
pubs.organisational-group Trinity College of Arts & Sciences
pubs.organisational-group University Institutes and Centers
pubs.publication-status Published
pubs.volume 36
dc.identifier.eissn 1090-2376


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