Impact of North Carolina's Early Childhood Programs and Policies on Educational Outcomes in Elementary School.
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North Carolina's Smart Start and More at Four (MAF) early childhood programs were evaluated through the end of elementary school (age 11) by estimating the impact of state funding allocations to programs in each of 100 counties across 13 consecutive years on outcomes for all children in each county-year group (n = 1,004,571; 49% female; 61% non-Latinx White, 30% African American, 4% Latinx, 5% other). Student-level regression models with county and year fixed effects indicated significant positive impacts of each program on reading and math test scores and reductions in special education and grade retention in each grade. Effect sizes grew or held steady across years. Positive effects held for both high- and low-poverty families, suggesting spillover of effects to nonparticipating peers.
Published Version (Please cite this version)10.1111/cdev.12645
Publication InfoDodge, KA; Bai, Y; Ladd, HF; & Muschkin, CG (2016). Impact of North Carolina's Early Childhood Programs and Policies on Educational Outcomes in Elementary School. Child Dev. 10.1111/cdev.12645. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/13015.
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William McDougall Distinguished Professor of Public Policy Studies
Kenneth A. Dodge is the William McDougall Distinguished Professor of Public Policy and Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at Duke University. He is also the founding and past director of the Center for Child and Family Policy, as well as the founder of Family Connects International. Dodge is a leading scholar in the development and prevention of aggressive and violent beha
Susan B. King Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Public Policy
Helen F. Ladd is the Susan B. King Professor Emerita of Public Policy and Economics at Duke University’s Sanford School of Public Policy. Her education research focuses on school finance and accountability, teacher labor markets, school choice, and early childhood programs. With colleagues at Duke University and UNC, she has used rich longitudinal administrative data from North Caroline to study school segregation, teacher labor markets, teacher quality, charter school
Associate Research Professor in the Sanford School of Public Policy
Clara Muschkin is an associate research professor of public policy at Duke University and an affiliate of the Center for Child and Family Policy. She directs the Child Policy Research Certificate Program and is the faculty director for the North Carolina Education Research Data Center (NCERDC). Muschkin is a sociologist and demographer with an interdisciplinary research focus. In her research, she asks how education policies that influence the composition and organization of edu
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