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Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans.

dc.contributor.author Clark, RV
dc.contributor.author Walker, AC
dc.contributor.author O'Connor-Semmes, RL
dc.contributor.author Leonard, MS
dc.contributor.author Miller, RR
dc.contributor.author Stimpson, SA
dc.contributor.author Turner, SM
dc.contributor.author Ravussin, E
dc.contributor.author Cefalu, WT
dc.contributor.author Hellerstein, MK
dc.contributor.author Evans, William Joseph
dc.coverage.spatial United States
dc.date.accessioned 2017-01-01T19:11:05Z
dc.date.available 2017-01-01T19:11:05Z
dc.date.issued 2014-06-15
dc.identifier http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24764133
dc.identifier japplphysiol.00045.2014
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/10161/13299
dc.description.abstract Current methods for clinical estimation of total body skeletal muscle mass have significant limitations. We tested the hypothesis that creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-creatine) measured by enrichment of urine D3-creatinine reveals total body creatine pool size, providing an accurate estimate of total body skeletal muscle mass. Healthy subjects with different muscle masses [n = 35: 20 men (19-30 yr, 70-84 yr), 15 postmenopausal women (51-62 yr, 70-84 yr)] were housed for 5 days. Optimal tracer dose was explored with single oral doses of 30, 60, or 100 mg D3-creatine given on day 1. Serial plasma samples were collected for D3-creatine pharmacokinetics. All urine was collected through day 5. Creatine and creatinine (deuterated and unlabeled) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Total body creatine pool size and muscle mass were calculated from D3-creatinine enrichment in urine. Muscle mass was also measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and traditional 24-h urine creatinine. D3-creatine was rapidly absorbed and cleared with variable urinary excretion. Isotopic steady-state of D3-creatinine enrichment in the urine was achieved by 30.7 ± 11.2 h. Mean steady-state enrichment in urine provided muscle mass estimates that correlated well with MRI estimates for all subjects (r = 0.868, P < 0.0001), with less bias compared with lean body mass assessment by DXA, which overestimated muscle mass compared with MRI. The dilution of an oral D3-creatine dose determined by urine D3-creatinine enrichment provides an estimate of total body muscle mass strongly correlated with estimates from serial MRI with less bias than total lean body mass assessment by DXA.
dc.language eng
dc.relation.ispartof J Appl Physiol (1985)
dc.relation.isversionof 10.1152/japplphysiol.00045.2014
dc.subject creatine
dc.subject creatinine
dc.subject lean body mass
dc.subject muscle mass
dc.subject Adult
dc.subject Aged
dc.subject Aged, 80 and over
dc.subject Body Composition
dc.subject Chromatography, Liquid
dc.subject Creatine
dc.subject Creatinine
dc.subject Female
dc.subject Humans
dc.subject Indicator Dilution Techniques
dc.subject Male
dc.subject Mass Spectrometry
dc.subject Middle Aged
dc.subject Muscle, Skeletal
dc.title Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans.
dc.type Journal article
pubs.author-url http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24764133
pubs.begin-page 1605
pubs.end-page 1613
pubs.issue 12
pubs.organisational-group Clinical Science Departments
pubs.organisational-group Duke
pubs.organisational-group Medicine
pubs.organisational-group Medicine, Geriatrics
pubs.organisational-group School of Medicine
pubs.publication-status Published
pubs.volume 116
dc.identifier.eissn 1522-1601


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