Utility of rapid antibody tests to exclude HIV-1 infection among infants and children aged <18 months in a low-resource setting.
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BACKGROUND: Excluding HIV infection among infants and young children in resource-poor settings where nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) are not routinely available remains a considerable challenge. OBJECTIVES: To assess the performance of two rapid HIV antibody tests (RT) used alone and in parallel for excluding HIV infection among acutely ill infants and children <18 months in comparison to NAAT in a region where maternal HIV prevalence was approximately 7%. STUDY DESIGN: Infants and children ≥2<18 months admitted to hospital with an acute febrile illness had two rapid antibody tests in parallel, with single and parallel results subsequently compared against NAAT. RESULTS: HIV prevalence among 1602 enrolled infants was 3.4%. All 1526 infants with 2 negative RT were HIV negative by NAAT. All 46 infants with 2 positive RT were HIV positive by NAAT. The overall specificity of two rapid tests for excluding HIV infection was 99.5%. Sensitivity and specificity were ≥99% and >98%, respectively, across all age brackets ≥2<18 months. Overall sensitivity and specificity for a single RT was 98.2% and 99%, respectively, for Determine, and 85.5% and 99.6%, respectively, for Capillus. CONCLUSIONS: In a setting with a maternal HIV prevalence rate of <10%, a single negative RT had excellent specificity and two negative RT performed in parallel had a perfect negative predictive value for HIV infection among acutely ill patients <18 months of age. In this and similar settings, RT could assist with excluding HIV infection with much lower complexity and cost than NAAT.
Sensitivity and Specificity
Published Version (Please cite this version)10.1016/j.jcv.2012.08.001
Publication InfoAmos, B; Buchanan, AM; Crump, John Andrew; Cunningham, Coleen; Mtove, G; Nadjm, B; ... Sifuna, D (2012). Utility of rapid antibody tests to exclude HIV-1 infection among infants and children aged <18 months in a low-resource setting. J Clin Virol, 55(3). pp. 244-249. 10.1016/j.jcv.2012.08.001. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/13787.
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Adjunct Professor in the Department of Medicine
I am based in northern Tanzania where I am Site Leader for Duke University’s collaborative research program based at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre and Director of Tanzania Operations for the Duke Global Health Institute. I oversee the design and implementation of research studies on infectious diseases, particularly febrile illness, invasive bacterial disease, HIV-associated opportunistic infections, clinical trials of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child tr
Professor of Pediatrics
Dr. Cunningham is a pediatric infectious diseases physician who has focused her research on the prevention and treatment of HIV infection in children. She has also played important roles in evaluation of vaccines for other infectious diseases and recently has worked on Ebola virus treatment studies. She is currently working on studies of active and passive immunization to prevent HIV transmission in neonates born to HIV infected women.
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