Five-year survival in a Program of All-inclusive Care for Elderly compared with alternative institutional and home- and community-based care.
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BACKGROUND: Community-based services are preferred to institutional care for people requiring long-term care (LTC). States are increasing their Medicaid waiver programs, although Program of All-Inclusive Care For Elderly (PACE)-prepaid, community-based comprehensive care-is available in 31 states. Despite emerging alternatives, little is known about their comparative effectiveness. METHODS: For a two-county region of South Carolina, we contrast long-term survival among entrants (n = 2040) to an aged and disabled waiver program, PACE, and nursing homes (NHs), stratifying for risk. Participants were followed for 5 years or until death; those lost to follow-up or surviving less than 5 years as on August 8, 2005 were censored. Analyses included admission descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier curves. To address cohort risk imbalance, we employed an established mortality risk index, which showed external validity in waiver, PACE, and NH cohorts (log-rank tests = 105.42, 28.72, and 52.23, respectively, all p < .001; c-statistics = .67, .58, .65, p < .001). RESULTS: Compared with waiver (n = 1,018) and NH (n = 468) admissions, PACE participants (n = 554) were older, more cognitively impaired, and had intermediate activities of daily living dependency. PACE mortality risk (72.6% high-to-intermediate) was greater than in waiver (58.8%), and similar to NH (71.6%). Median NH survival was 2.3 years. Median PACE survival was 4.2 years versus 3.5 in waiver (unstratified, log rank = .394; p = .53), but accounting for risk, PACE's advantage is significant (log rank = 5.941 (1); p = .015). Compared with waiver, higher risk admissions to PACE were most likely to benefit (moderate: PACE median survival = 4.7 years vs waiver 3.4; high risk: 3.0 vs 2.0). CONCLUSION: Long-term outcomes of LTC alternatives warrant greater research and policy attention.
Community Health Services
Comprehensive Health Care
Health Services for the Aged
Homes for the Aged
Published Version (Please cite this version)10.1093/gerona/glq040
Publication InfoWieland, Darryl; Boland, R; Baskins, J; & Kinosian, B (2010). Five-year survival in a Program of All-inclusive Care for Elderly compared with alternative institutional and home- and community-based care. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 65(7). pp. 721-726. 10.1093/gerona/glq040. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10161/14894.
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