Effects of High Volume MOSFET Usage on Dosimetry in Pediatric CT, Pediatric Lens of the Eye Dose Reduction Using Siemens Care kV, & Designing Quality Assurance of a Cesium Calibration Source
Project 1: Effects of High Volume MOSFET Usage on Dosimetry in Pediatric CT
The objective of this study was to determine if using large numbers of Metal-Oxide-Semiconducting-Field-Effect Transistors, MOSFETs, effects the results of dosimetry studies done with pediatric phantoms due to the attenuation properties of the MOSFETs. The two primary focuses of the study were first to experimentally determine the degree to which high numbers of MOSFET detectors attenuate an X-ray beam of Computed Tomography (CT) quality and second, to experimentally verify the effect that the large number of MOSFETs have on dose in a pediatric phantom undergoing a routine CT examination.
Materials and Methods
A Precision X-Ray X-Rad 320 set to 120kVp with an effective half value layer of 7.30mm aluminum was used in concert with a tissue equivalent block phantom and several used MOSFET cables to determine the attenuation properties of the MOSFET cables by measuring the dose (via a 0.18cc ion chamber) given to a point in the center of the phantom in a 0.5 min exposure with a variety of MOSFET arrangements. After the attenuating properties of the cables were known, a GE Discovery 750 CT scanner was employed using a routine chest CT protocol in concert with a 10-year-old Atom Dosimetry Phantom and MOSFET dosimeters in 5 different locations in and on the phantom (upper left lung (ULL), upper right lung (URL), lower left lung (LLL), lower right lung (LRL), and the center of the chest to represent skin dose). Twenty-eight used MOSFET cables were arranged and taped on the chest of the phantom to cover 30% of the circumference of the phantom (19.2 cm). Scans using tube current modulation and not using tube current modulation were taken at 30, 20, 10, and 0% circumference coverage and 28 MOSFETs bundled and laid to the side of the phantom. The dose to the various MOSFET locations in and on the chest were calculated and the image quality was accessed in several of these situations by taking the standard deviation of a large regions of interest in both the lung and the soft tissue of the chest to measure the noise.
The proof of concept experiment found that the main cable of the MOSET, not the ends closest to the reading tip, is the most attenuating part of the cable. The proof of concept also found that increasing the number of MOSFET layers to 1, 2, 3, and 4 layers decreased the dose to the center of the phantom by 17.92, 28.04, 39.98, 42.49% respectively. Increasing the percent of the block phantom covered to 10, 30, and 50% coverage decreased the dose to the center of the phantom by 17.92, 17.80, and 18.17% respectively.
Project 2: Pediatric Lens of the Eye Dose Reduction Using Siemens Care kV
The Siemens Care kV is a software that recommends a tube potential (kV) setting for CT scans based on the thickness of the anatomy being scanned in order to reduce dose on a patient to patient basis. Pediatric cranial scans at Duke do not use this software nor do they use tube current modulation. Dose to the lens of the eye in pediatric patients can lead to lens opacity later in life . The goal of this project was to determine if Care kV can be used in pediatric cranial scans to reduce the dose to the lens of the eye while maintaining adequate image quality.
Materials and Methods
A Siemens SOMATOM Force CT scanner performing a routine cranial scan protocol was used in concert with two Atom Dosimetry Phantoms (1-year-old and 5-year-old) and MOSFET dosimeters to determine the effect changing the reference tube potential of the Care kV software would have on dose and image quality (measured with CNR). The settings used with Care kV were off, and semi reference tube potential 120, 110, and 100 kV.
Dose to the lens of the eye was reduced for the 1-year old phantom by 9.601, 17.572, and 19.724% by using Care kV with tube potential set to 120, 110 and 100 kV respectively. Dose to the lens of the eye was reduced for the 5-year old phantom by 1.060, 8.859, and17.854% by using Care kV with tube potential set to 120, 110 and 100 kV respectively. Soft tissue CNR was reduced for the 1-year old phantom by 8.812, 11.001, and 5.018% by using Care kV with tube potential set to 120, 110 and 100 kV respectively. Soft tissue CNR was reduced for the 5-year old phantom by 3.473, 5.517, and 3.248% by using Care kV with tube potential set to 120, 110 and 100 kV respectively. Bone CNR was reduced for the 1-year old phantom by 4.447, 8.175, and 10.046% by using Care kV with tube potential set to 120, 110 and 100 kV respectively. Bone CNR was reduced for the 5-year old phantom by 4.782, 7.966, and 11.715% by using Care kV with tube potential set to 120, 110 and 100 kV respectively.
Project 3: Designing Quality Assurance for Cesium Calibration Source
North Caroline regulations state that survey meters must be traceable to NIST. The Cs-137 Calibration source used by Duke was installed in 2005 and has since not been measured except for routine calibration of survey meters. The goal of this project was to measure the geometry and dose rate of the source and make a recommendation as to how and how often quality assurance measurements should be made with a NIST traceable ion chamber.
Materials and Methods
Gafchromic XR QA2 radiochromic film was placed in the source beam to measure the angle of the source collimator. Two 0.18 cc and a 6 cc ion chamber were used in a variety of combinations of distance from source and attenuation to determine the exposure rate of the calibration source and compare it to the current calibration table in use.
The collimator angles for the top, bottom, left, and right were calculated to be 12.13, 9.648, 11.58, and 11.58, respectively. The two 0.18 cc ion chambers deviated from the table values by more than 30% for every measurement. The 6 cc ion chamber deviated from the calibration table in use by 9.55, 8.13, 3.36, and 3.72% for 30 cm no attenuation, 30 cm 2x attenuation, 100 cm no attenuation, and 100 cm 2x attenuation measurements respectively.
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