Ontogenetic changes in foot strike pattern and calcaneal loading during walking in young children.
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The assumption that the morphology of the human calcaneus reflects high and cyclical impact forces at heel strike during adult human walking has never been experimentally tested. Since a walking step with a heel strike is an emergent behavior in children, an ontogenetic study provides a natural experiment to begin testing the relationship between the mechanics of heel strike and calcaneal anatomy. This study examined the ground reaction forces (GRFs) of stepping in children to determine the location of the center of pressure (COP) relative to the calcaneus and the orientation and magnitude of ground reaction forces during foot contact. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were analyzed for 18 children ranging in age from 11.5 to 43.1 months. Early steppers used a flat foot contact (FFC) and experienced relatively high vertical and resultant GRFs with COP often anterior to the calcaneus. More experienced walkers used an initial heel contact (IHC) in which GRFs were significantly lower but the center of pressure remained under the heel a greater proportion of time. Thus, during FFC the foot experienced higher loading, but the heel itself was relatively wider and the load was distributed more evenly. In IHC walkers load was concentrated on the anterior calcaneus and a narrower heel, suggesting a need for increased calcaneal robusticity during development to mitigate injury. These results provide new insight into foot loading outside of typical mature contact patterns, inform structure-function relationships during development, and illuminate potential causes of heel injury in young walkers.
Published Version (Please cite this version)10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.09.027
Publication InfoJensen, JL; Schmitt, Daniel Oliver; Shapiro, Liza J; & Zeininger, Angel (2018). Ontogenetic changes in foot strike pattern and calcaneal loading during walking in young children. Gait Posture, 59. pp. 18-22. 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.09.027. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10161/15802.
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Professor in the Department of Evolutionary Anthropology
My primary interest is in the evolution of primate locomotion. I am studying the mechanics of movement in primates and other vertebrates in the laboratory to understand the relationship between movement and postcranial morphology, and the unique nature of primates among mammals. Current projects include the origins of primate locomotion and the evolution of vertebrate bipedalism.
Lecturning Fellow, Senior of Evolutionary Anthropology
My primary areas of interest are the ontogeny of locomotion, trabecular bone remodeling, and the evolution and functional morphology of the hands and feet. I am interested in how forces incurred during locomotion influence the microarchitecture of trabecular bone. In particular, my research aims to 1) determine the magnitude and direction of forces that travel through bones during locomotion, 2) use advanced imaging techniques to identify evidence of ground reaction, muscle, and joint reaction f
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