S-duality in Abelian gauge theory revisited
Definition of the partition function of U(1) gauge theory is extended to a class of four-manifolds containing all compact spaces and certain asymptotically locally flat (ALF) ones including the multi-Taub-NUT spaces. The partition function is calculated via zeta-function regularization and heat kernel techniques with special attention to its modular properties. In the compact case, compared with the purely topological result of Witten, we find a non-trivial curvature correction to the modular weights of the partition function. But the S-duality can be restored by adding gravitational counter terms to the Lagrangian in the usual way. In the ALF case however we encounter non-trivial difficulties stemming from original non-compact ALF phenomena. Fortunately our careful definition of the partition function makes it possible to circumnavigate them and conclude that the partition function has the same modular properties as in the compact case. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.