Geographic and Racial Disparities in Infant Hearing Loss.
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Objective Approximately 1 to 2 of every 1000 American newborns has hearing loss identified by newborn screening. This study was designed to determine if infant hearing loss is more common in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. Study Design In this retrospective study, we analyzed electronic medical record data using geostatistical models. Setting Infants were residents of Durham County, North Carolina, born in 2 hospitals of the Duke University Health System. This county includes the city of Durham and surrounding suburban and rural communities. Subjects and Methods Subjects were hearing-screened newborns, born between 2005 and 2016, whose residential address was in Durham County, North Carolina. This was a retrospective study using medical record data. We used Bayesian regression models with smoothing of coordinate date to identify both spatial and nonspatial predictors of infant hearing loss. Results We identified 19,348 infants from Durham County, of whom 675 had failed initial hearing screening and 191 had hearing loss confirmed on follow-up. Hearing loss was significantly associated with minority race (odds ratio [OR], 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.97-3.06), as well as lower gestational age and maternal sexually transmitted infections. We identified significant geographic heterogeneity, with a higher probability of hearing loss in poorer urban neighborhoods (local OR range, 0.59-1.39). Neighborhood disadvantage was a significant predictor of hearing loss, as was high local seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) among pregnant women. Conclusions Urban, low-income neighborhoods have a high prevalence of infant hearing loss compared with more affluent surrounding communities, particularly among minorities. This distribution may be attributable to congenital CMV infection.
geographic information systems
Published Version (Please cite this version)10.1177/0194599818803305
Publication InfoLantos, Paul M; Maradiaga-Panayotti, Gabriela; Barber, Xavier; Raynor, Eileen; Tucci, Debara; Hoffman, Kate; ... Swamy, Geeta K (2018). Geographic and Racial Disparities in Infant Hearing Loss. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. pp. 194599818803305. 10.1177/0194599818803305. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/17604.
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Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Associate Professor of Medicine
I am interested in the spatial epidemiology of infectious diseases. My research utilizes geographic information systems (GIS) and geostatistical analyses to understand the spatial and spatiotemporal distribution of diseases, and their relationship with environmental and demographic factors. I currently have active studies evaluating the spatial distribution of numerous domestic and international infectious diseases, including SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), cytomegalovirus, influenza, and Lyme disease. A
Wilburt C. Davison Distinguished Professor
Dr. Permar's work focuses on the development of vaccines to prevent vertical transmission of neonatal viral pathogens. She has utilized the nonhuman primate model of HIV/AIDS to characterize the virus-specific immune responses and virus evolution in breast milk and develop a maternal vaccine regimen for protection against breast milk transmission of HIV. In addition, Dr. Permar's lab has advanced the understanding of HIV-specific immune responses and virus evolution in vertically-transmitting an
Associate Professor of Head and Neck Surgery and Communication Sciences
I am interested in multidisciplinary management of pediatric patients with an emphasis on minimizing anesthesia exposures and coordination of care. I also focus on communication abilities including pediatric voice disorders working with voice therapists in the Duke Voice Care Center. I enjoy congenital head and neck surgery as well as airway, endoscopic sinus and otology. My research interests include collaborative projects with other disciplines and using technology to determi
Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Dr. Geeta Swamy, MD, became Vice Chair for Research and Faculty Development in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology on March 1, 2018. In this dual role, Dr. Swamy oversees strategic development and administration of the Department’s basic, translational and clinical research programs, as well as implements and oversees programs to support development and mentorship for all faculty at all levels. Dr. Swamy has also been instrumental in developing and leading the School of
Adjunct Professor in the Department of Head and Neck Surgery & Communication Sciences
The focus of current research efforts is in defining the effects of conductive hearing impairment on the development and function of the central auditory system. The ultimate goal of this research is to understand the impact of hearing loss, such as that associated with otitis media, on the development of auditory function in children. Experiments are currently being performed in which central auditory system activity is studied using the 2-deoxyglucose method following unilateral n
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