Intimate Partner Violence Within the Global Context: Risk and Experiences Among Chinese Women and Latinx Immigrants
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Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global health challenge characterized by a high prevalence rate; detrimental outcomes across physical, emotional, and sexual health domains; and heavy financial burden. International efforts that actively involve health sectors are needed to address this urgent issue. As IPV differs depending on its specific cultural and socio-environmental context, careful evaluation is required to ensure that relevant practices and policies are contextually appropriate and effective. This dissertation aims to develop knowledge that contributes to a rich and nuanced understanding of how differences in cultural and socio-economic context shape risks and experiences of IPV among populations in low-resource settings globally by focusing on two underrepresented populations in IPV literature: Chinese women in Mainland China and Latinx immigrants in the US. Specifically, the aims of this dissertation are to (a) synthesize current evidence on risk and protective factors associated with IPV against Chinese women, (b) describe the effects of risk factors for IPV victimization and perpetration among Latinx immigrants with a focus on cultural and socio-environmental factors, and (c) describe the experiences of Chinese women who have experienced IPV. This dissertation addresses its aims by means of the following: (a) synthesis of existing literature on risk and protective factors associated with IPV against Chinese women via a systematic review; (b) analysis of a cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study on IPV against Latinx immigrants in the US; and (c) analysis of posts from a Chinese forum on domestic violence to describe women’s experiences of IPV using a qualitative descriptive design. This dissertation reveals several major findings. First, IPV risk factors for Chinese women that are consistently supported by evidence include factors at the individual level (e.g., demographics, socioeconomic status, attitudinal factors, behavioral factors, adverse childhood experiences [ACEs], and other personal characteristics); factors at the relationship level (e.g., conflicts, power in intimate relationships, and social capital); and factors at the community level (i.e., geographic locations). However, factors at the societal level and intersections of factors within the same level or across different levels are not examined by existing evidence. Second, acculturative stress, rather than acculturation itself, is associated with a higher risk for IPV victimization for Latinx immigrants, and ACEs are associated with an elevated risk of IPV perpetration. Specifically, family stress emerged as a factor that increases risk for IPV victimization. Although further research is warranted, the profiles of risk factors for IPV perpetration were different for women than for men. Third, Chinese women revealed experiences of IPV that are captured by the following five themes: being trapped in my roles; no power in the relationship; the struggles are real, but I need to tolerate; I want to leave, but have no help; and hope for the future. This dissertation addresses critical gaps in the literature on risk and experiences of IPV among populations in low-resource settings and serves as an empirical foundation to address this global health challenge. Further, this dissertation has significant implications as the nursing discipline is well-positioned to prevent IPV, promote health, and eliminate health disparities through future research, practice, and policy based on its findings.
low- and middle-income countries
violence against women
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