Injury characteristics and their association with clinical complications among emergency care patients in Tanzania.
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<h4>Background</h4>Over 5 million people annually die from injuries and millions more sustain non-fatal injuries requiring medical care. Ninety percent of injury deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study describes the characteristics, predictors and outcomes of adult acute injury patients presenting to a tertiary referral hospital in a low-income country in sub-Saharan Africa.<h4>Methods</h4>This secondary analysis uses an adult acute injury registry from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Moshi, Tanzania. We describe this patient sample in terms of socio-demographics, clinical indicators, injury patterns, treatments, and outcomes at hospital discharge. Outcomes include mortality, length of hospital stay, and functional independence. Associations between patient characteristics and patient outcomes are quantified using Cox proportional hazards models, negative binomial regression, and multivariable logistic regression.<h4>Results</h4>Of all injury patients (n=1365), 39.0% were aged 30 to 49 years and 81.5% were men. Most patients had at least a primary school education (89.6%) and were employed (89.3%). A majority of injuries were road traffic (63.2%), fall (16.8%), or assault (14.0%) related. Self-reported comorbidities included hypertension (5.8%), HIV (3.1%), and diabetes (2.3%). Performed surgeries were classified as orthopedic (32.3%), general (4.1%), neurological (3.7%), or other (59.8%). Most patients reached the hospital at least four hours after injury occurred (53.9%). Mortality was 5.3%, median length of hospital stay was 6.1 days (IQR: 3.1, 15.0), self-care dependence was 54.2%, and locomotion dependence was 41.5%.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our study sample included primarily young men suffering road traffic crashes with delayed hospital presentations and prolonged hospital stays. Being older, male, and requiring non-orthopedic surgeries or having HIV portends a worse prognosis. Prevention and treatment focused interventions to reduce the burden of injury mortality and morbidity at KCMC are needed to lower injury rates and improve injury outcomes.
Published Version (Please cite this version)10.1016/j.afjem.2022.08.001
Publication InfoZimmerman, Armand; Barcenas, Loren K; Pesambili, Msafiri; Sakita, Francis; Mallya, Simon; Vissoci, Joao Ricardo Nickenig; ... Staton, Catherine A (2022). Injury characteristics and their association with clinical complications among emergency care patients in Tanzania. African journal of emergency medicine : Revue africaine de la medecine d'urgence, 12(4). pp. 378-386. 10.1016/j.afjem.2022.08.001. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/25914.
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Janet Prvu Bettger
Adjunct Associate in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
Dr. Bettger’s research is dedicated to establishing real world evidence aimed to improve health care quality and policies that reduce the burden of disease and disability. As a health services researcher and implementation scientist, her research extends from observational studies to randomized and pragmatic trials. She is currently the Director of Duke Roybal Center for Translational Research in the Behavioral and Social Sciences of Aging and Director of Undergraduate Initiatives
Lawrence P Park
Associate Professor in Medicine
Catherine Ann Staton
Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine
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