Three-dimensional dispersive metallic photonic crystals with a bandgap and a high cutoff frequency.
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The goal of this work is to analyze three-dimensional dispersive metallic photonic crystals (PCs) and to find a structure that can provide a bandgap and a high cutoff frequency. The determination of the band structure of a PC with dispersive materials is an expensive nonlinear eigenvalue problem; in this work we propose a rational-polynomial method to convert such a nonlinear eigenvalue problem into a linear eigenvalue problem. The spectral element method is extended to rapidly calculate the band structure of three-dimensional PCs consisting of realistic dispersive materials modeled by Drude and Drude-Lorentz models. Exponential convergence is observed in the numerical experiments. Numerical results show that, at the low frequency limit, metallic materials are similar to a perfect electric conductor, where the simulation results tend to be the same as perfect electric conductor PCs. Band structures of the scaffold structure and semi-woodpile structure metallic PCs are investigated. It is found that band structures of semi-woodpile PCs have a very high cutoff frequency as well as a bandgap between the lowest two bands and the higher bands.