Genetic Dissection of the Biological and Molecular Role of IDH1 Mutations in Glioma
Gliomas are tumors of the central nervous system for which improvements in treatment are critically needed. Mutations in IDH1 and IDH2, which encode the cytosolic and mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases, respectively, are frequent in gliomas. Here, we summarize recent literature concerning gliomas, the normal cellular functions of IDH1/2, the epidemiology of IDH1/2 mutations, and the understanding of the function of IDH1/2 mutations in cancer. We then show in vitro using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry that a function of many IDH1/2 mutations is to produce 2-hydroxyglutarate. Next, we use a mass spectrometry based platform to characterize metabolic changes in a glioma cell line expressing IDH1/2 mutants and show that the IDH mutants are associated with lowered N-acetylated amino acids both in this cell line model and in primary tumor tissue. Finally, we develop and characterize a Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) model of IDH1/2-mutated cancer by expressing the mutated Drosophila homolog of IDH1 in fly tissues using the UAS-Gal4 binary expression system. These results delineate downstream molecular players that likely play a role in IDH1/2-mutated cancer and provide a model organism for interrogation of genetic networks that interact with IDH1/2 mutation. These findings refine our understanding of glioma pathogenesis and may inform the design of new glioma therapies.
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