Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries.
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BACKGROUND: The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs), yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and associations of child labour with schooling in a cohort of OAC in 5 LMICs. METHODS: The Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO) study employed a two-stage random sampling survey methodology to identify 1480 single and double orphans and children abandoned by both parents ages 6-12 living in family settings in five LMICs: Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Tanzania. Regression models examined child and caregiver associations with: any work versus no work; and with working <21, 21-27, and 28+ hours during the past week, and child labour (UNICEF definition). RESULTS: The majority of OAC (60.7%) engaged in work during the past week, and of those who worked, 17.8% (10.5% of the total sample) worked 28 or more hours. More than one-fifth (21.9%; 13% of the total sample) met UNICEF's child labour definition. Female OAC and those in good health had increased odds of working. OAC living in rural areas, lower household wealth and caregivers not earning an income were associated with increased child labour. Child labour, but not working fewer than 28 hours per week, was associated with decreased school attendance. CONCLUSIONS: One in seven OAC in this study were reported to be engaged in child labour. Policy makers and social service providers need to pay close attention to the demands being placed on female OAC, particularly in rural areas and poor households with limited income sources. Programs to promote OAC school attendance may need to focus on the needs of families as well as the OAC.
Published Version (Please cite this version)10.1186/1472-698X-11-1
Publication InfoWhetten, Rachel; Messer, Lynne; Ostermann, Jan; Whetten, Kathryn; Pence, Brian Wells; Buckner, Megan; ... Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO) Research Team (2011). Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries. BMC Int Health Hum Rights, 11. pp. 1. 10.1186/1472-698X-11-1. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/5875.
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Adjunct Assistant Professor of Global Health
This author no longer has a Scholars@Duke profile, so the information shown here reflects their Duke status at the time this item was deposited.
Duke Temporary Service
My research interests are in early development risk: drug exposure, HIV infection, and iodine deficiency. I have ongoing research in developmental outcomes of children exposed prenatally to drugs and alcohol. They include the Infant Care Project (Pediatrics) and the Family Care Project (Psychiatry). I am co-investigator on a NIDA study of SIDS risk with prenatal cocaine exposure. I am involved at Duke and nationally in the study of the neurodevelopmental effects of pediatric HIV infecti
Adjunct Associate Professor of Global Health
Adjunct Associate Professor in the Department of Family Medicine and Community Health
Brian Wells Pence, PhD MPH, is trained as an infectious diseases epidemiologist. His research interests focus primarily on the impact of trauma, mental illness, and other psychosocial characteristics on HIV-related behaviors and clinical outcomes and on the development of effective and practical interventiosn to address mental illness in HIV patients.
Professor of Medicine
Broadly, my research focuses on a range of clinical and social issues that affect persons living with or at risk for HIV infection in resource-poor settings. In Tanzania, our group is applying novel methods to optimize HIV testing uptake among high-risk groups. We recently demonstrated that the Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE), a form of stated preference survey research, is a robust tool for identifying (a) which characteristics of HIV testing options are most preferred by different populati
Professor in the Sanford School of Public Policy
Director, Center for Health Policy and Inequalities ResearchResearch Director, Hart Fellows Program,Professor, Public Policy and Global Health Professor, Nursing and Community & Family Medicine Kathryn Whetten (PhD) is Chair of the Maternal, Adolescent and Child Health working group, and she is the Co-Chair of the University Diversity Task Force and the Sanford Diversity Committee. Kathryn Whetten is the Principal Investigator on
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