Differential mechanisms of morphine antinociceptive tolerance revealed in (beta)arrestin-2 knock-out mice.
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Morphine induces antinociception by activating mu opioid receptors (muORs) in spinal and supraspinal regions of the CNS. (Beta)arrestin-2 (beta)arr2), a G-protein-coupled receptor-regulating protein, regulates the muOR in vivo. We have shown previously that mice lacking (beta)arr2 experience enhanced morphine-induced analgesia and do not become tolerant to morphine as determined in the hot-plate test, a paradigm that primarily assesses supraspinal pain responsiveness. To determine the general applicability of the (beta)arr2-muOR interaction in other neuronal systems, we have, in the present study, tested (beta)arr2 knock-out ((beta)arr2-KO) mice using the warm water tail-immersion paradigm, which primarily assesses spinal reflexes to painful thermal stimuli. In this test, the (beta)arr2-KO mice have greater basal nociceptive thresholds and markedly enhanced sensitivity to morphine. Interestingly, however, after a delayed onset, they do ultimately develop morphine tolerance, although to a lesser degree than the wild-type (WT) controls. In the (beta)arr2-KO but not WT mice, morphine tolerance can be completely reversed with a low dose of the classical protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine. These findings provide in vivo evidence that the muOR is differentially regulated in diverse regions of the CNS. Furthermore, although (beta)arr2 appears to be the most prominent and proximal determinant of muOR desensitization and morphine tolerance, in the absence of this mechanism, the contributions of a PKC-dependent regulatory system become readily apparent.
Mice, Inbred Strains
Protein Kinase C
Receptors, Opioid, mu
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James B. Duke Distinguished Professor of Cell Biology
Studies of the mechanisms of action and regulation of hormones and neurotransmitters at the cellular and molecular levels constitute the main goals our of research activities. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) mediate the actions of signaling molecules from unicellular organisms to man. We have used adrenergic and dopamine receptors to characterize the structure/function and regulation mechanisms of these prototypes of G protein-coupled receptors. Another approach has been to characterize
James B. Duke Distinguished Professor of Medicine
The focus of work in this laboratory is on the elucidation of the molecular properties and regulatory mechanisms controlling the function of G protein-coupled receptors. As model systems we utilize the so called adrenergic receptors for adrenaline and related molecules. The goal is to learn the general principles of signal transduction from the outside to the inside of the cell which are involved in systems as diverse as sensory perception, neuro- transmitter and hormonal signaling. Stud
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