Computational Optical Imaging Systems: Sensing Strategies, Optimization Methods, and Performance Bounds
The emerging theory of compressed sensing has been nothing short of a revolution in signal processing, challenging some of the longest-held ideas in signal processing and leading to the development of exciting new ways to capture and reconstruct signals and images. Although the theoretical promises of compressed sensing are manifold, its implementation in many practical applications has lagged behind the associated theoretical development. Our goal is to elevate compressed sensing from an interesting theoretical discussion to a feasible alternative to conventional imaging, a significant challenge and an exciting topic for research in signal processing. When applied to imaging, compressed sensing can be thought of as a particular case of computational imaging, which unites the design of both the sensing and reconstruction of images under one design paradigm. Computational imaging tightly fuses modeling of scene content, imaging hardware design, and the subsequent reconstruction algorithms used to recover the images.
This thesis makes important contributions to each of these three areas through two primary research directions. The first direction primarily attacks the challenges associated with designing practical imaging systems that implement incoherent measurements. Our proposed snapshot imaging architecture using compressive coded aperture imaging devices can be practically implemented, and comes equipped with theoretical recovery guarantees. It is also straightforward to extend these ideas to a video setting where careful modeling of the scene can allow for joint spatio-temporal compressive sensing. The second direction develops a host of new computational tools for photon-limited inverse problems. These situations arise with increasing frequency in modern imaging applications as we seek to drive down image acquisition times, limit excitation powers, or deliver less radiation to a patient. By an accurate statistical characterization of the measurement process in optical systems, including the inherent Poisson noise associated with photon detection, our class of algorithms is able to deliver high-fidelity images with a fraction of the required scan time, as well as enable novel methods for tissue quantification from intraoperative microendoscopy data. In short, the contributions of this dissertation are diverse, further the state-of-the-art in computational imaging, elevate compressed sensing from an interesting theory to a practical imaging methodology, and allow for effective image recovery in light-starved applications.
Coded Aperture Imaging
Poisson Inverse Problems
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