||Adaptive management has been widely used to manage ecological and natural resources
from large aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems to individual special status species.
Adaptive Program Management (APM) is a unique application of adaptive management to
a large, complex, and long-duration construction program in support of the relocation
of U.S. Marine Corps personnel and dependents from Okinawa, Japan to Guam. APM is
aimed at avoiding significant construction related environmental impacts including
potentially significant impacts to already degraded utility infrastructure and fragile
public service systems on Guam. The uncertainty and potential severity of impacts
stem from a projected rapid and large population increase over a five to ten year
Federal and local representatives have assisted the U.S. Navy to develop APM guidance
and an operating charter for the Civil Military Coordinating Council (CMCC) the organization
responsible for implementing APM. In this paper I evaluate the development of APM
from five perspectives – the project record of decision and environmental impact statement,
Council on Environmental Quality guidance, the Department of Interior’s Adaptive Management
Technical Guide, an article by Gregory R (Gregory et al. 2006) and from insights by
the key stakeholders involved in developing APM.
I conclude that APM has substantially met the intent and guidance from the literature
cited above, and offer five management recommendations to further develop APM for
implementation; 1) better defining the concept of induced population growth; 2) providing
additional workshop-level efforts to develop impact triggers followed by investigations
into low-cost yet adequately scoped monitoring approaches that inform triggers; 3)
formulating a new standard operating procedure to enhance collaboration among practitioners;
and 4) granting full authority to the CMCC to determine an optimal mix of membership.
APM application to other large, complex and long-duration construction projects may
benefit from organizing and managing environmental and social impacts by replacing
traditional management frameworks without adding a new level of management.