ALERT: This system is being upgraded on Tuesday December 12. It will not be available for use for several hours that day while the upgrade is in progress. Deposits to DukeSpace will be disabled on Monday December 11, so no new items are to be added to the repository while the upgrade is in progress. Everything should be back to normal by the end of day, December 12.

Some cases address technologies that were never patented and widely shared through publication and scientific and technical networks, many of which proved important not only in science but also in developing commercial products and services (e.g.,Sanger-Coulson and Maxam-Gilbert DNA sequencing methods, or the pBR322 cloning vector). Others involve patented technologies that were widely adopted in science and commerce, through nonexclusive licensing and other strategies (e.g., Cohen-Boyer recombinant DNA, Wigler-Silverstein-Axel cotransformation, and polymerase chain reaction). Yet others involve technologies championed by startup firms. In some cases, seminal patents were owned by the firm (e.g., Affymetrix and DNA chips) and in other cases, academic institutions gave exclusive licenses to the startup (e.g., Tufts University and Illumina for bead-array technology).

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