Monoclonal antibodies reveal receptor specificity among G-protein-coupled receptor kinases.
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Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) constitute a family of serine/threonine kinases that play a major role in the agonist-induced phosphorylation and desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors. Herein we describe the generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically react with GRK2 and GRK3 or with GRK4, GRK5, and GRK6. They are used in several different receptor systems to identify the kinases that are responsible for receptor phosphorylation and desensitization. The ability of these reagents to inhibit GRK- mediated receptor phosphorylation is demonstrated in permeabilized 293 cells that overexpress individual GRKs and the type 1A angiotensin II receptor. We also use this approach to identify the endogenous GRKs that are responsible for the agonist-induced phosphorylation of epitope-tagged beta2- adrenergic receptors (beta2ARs) overexpressed in rabbit ventricular myocytes that are infected with a recombinant adenovirus. In these myocytes, anti-GRK2/3 mAbs inhibit isoproterenol-induced receptor phosphorylation by 77%, while GRK4-6-specific mAbs have no effect. Consistent with the operation of a betaAR kinase-mediated mechanism, GRK2 is identified by immunoblot analysis as well as in a functional assay as the predominant GRK expressed in these cells. Microinjection of GRK2/3-specific mAbs into chicken sensory neurons, which have been shown to express a GRK3-like protein, abolishes desensitization of the alpha2AR-mediated calcium current inhibition. The intracellular inhibition of endogenous GRKs by mAbs represents a novel approach to the study of receptor specificities among GRKs that should be widely applicable to many G-protein-coupled receptors.
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3
G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases
Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Receptors, Cell Surface
beta-Adrenergic Receptor Kinases
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Neil Jonathan Freedman
Professor of Medicine
Our work focuses on atherosclerosis-related signal transduction and the genetic bases of atherosclerosis and vein graft failure, both in vitro and in vivo. We investigate the regulation of receptor protein tyrosine kinases by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), and the role of GRKs and β-arrestins in atherosclerosis; the role of tumor necrosis factor and its receptors in atherosclerosis; and the role of the dual Rho-GEF kalirin in atherosclerosis. For in vivo modeling of athe
Robert J. Lefkowitz
The Chancellor's Distinguished Professor of Medicine
Dr. Lefkowitz’s memoir, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to Stockholm, recounts his early career as a cardiologist and his transition to biochemistry, which led to his Nobel Prize win. Robert J. Lefkowitz, M.D. is James B. Duke Professor of Medicine and Professor of Biochemistry and Chemistry at the Duke University Medical Center. He has been an Investigator of the
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Receptor and G betagamma isoform-specific interactions with G protein-coupled receptor kinases. Daaka, Y; Pitcher, JA; Richardson, M; Stoffel, RH; Robishaw, JD; Lefkowitz, RJ (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1997-03-18)The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate and desensitize agonist-occupied GPCRs. GRK2-mediated receptor phosphorylation is preceded by the agonist-dependent membrane association of this enzyme. ...
Hybrid transgenic mice reveal in vivo specificity of G protein-coupled receptor kinases in the heart. Eckhart, AD; Duncan, SJ; Penn, RB; Benovic, JL; Lefkowitz, RJ; Koch, WJ (Circ Res, 2000-01-07)G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate activated G protein-coupled receptors, including alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptors (ARs), resulting in desensitization. In vivo analysis of GRK substrate selectivity has ...
Direct evidence that Gi-coupled receptor stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase is mediated by G beta gamma activation of p21ras. Koch, WJ; Hawes, BE; Allen, LF; Lefkowitz, RJ (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1994-12-20)Stimulation of Gi-coupled receptors leads to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases). In several cell types, this appears to be dependent on the activation of p21ras (Ras). Which G-protein subunit(s) ...