Chromosomal organization of adrenergic receptor genes.
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The adrenergic receptors (ARs) (subtypes alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1, and beta 2) are a prototypic family of guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein-coupled receptors that mediate the physiological effects of the hormone epinephrine and the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. We have previously assigned the genes for beta 2- and alpha 2-AR to human chromosomes 5 and 10, respectively. By Southern analysis of somatic cell hybrids and in situ chromosomal hybridization, we have now mapped the alpha 1-AR gene to chromosome 5q32----q34, the same position as beta 2-AR, and the beta 1-AR gene to chromosome 10q24----q26, the region where alpha 2-AR is located. In mouse, both alpha 2- and beta 1-AR genes were assigned to chromosome 19, and the alpha 1-AR locus was localized to chromosome 11. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis has shown that the alpha 1- and beta 2-AR genes in humans are within 300 kilobases (kb) and the distance between the alpha 2- and beta 1-AR genes is less than 225 kb. The proximity of these two pairs of AR genes and the sequence similarity that exists among all the ARs strongly suggest that they are evolutionarily related. Moreover, they likely arose from a common ancestral receptor gene and subsequently diverged through gene duplication and chromosomal duplication to perform their distinctive roles in mediating the physiological effects of catecholamines. The AR genes thus provide a paradigm for understanding the evolution of such structurally conserved yet functionally divergent families of receptor molecules.
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta
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James B. Duke Distinguished Professor of Cell Biology
Studies of the mechanisms of action and regulation of hormones and neurotransmitters at the cellular and molecular levels constitute the main goals our of research activities. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) mediate the actions of signaling molecules from unicellular organisms to man. We have used adrenergic and dopamine receptors to characterize the structure/function and regulation mechanisms of these prototypes of G protein-coupled receptors. Another approach has been to characterize
James B. Duke Distinguished Professor of Medicine
The focus of work in this laboratory is on the elucidation of the molecular properties and regulatory mechanisms controlling the function of G protein-coupled receptors. As model systems we utilize the so called adrenergic receptors for adrenaline and related molecules. The goal is to learn the general principles of signal transduction from the outside to the inside of the cell which are involved in systems as diverse as sensory perception, neuro- transmitter and hormonal signaling. Stud
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