Functional desensitization of the isolated beta-adrenergic receptor by the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase: potential role of an analog of the retinal protein arrestin (48-kDa protein).
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The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase is an enzyme, possibly analogous to rhodopsin kinase, that multiply phosphorylates the beta-adrenergic receptor only when it is occupied by stimulatory agonists. Since this kinase may play an important role in mediating the process of homologous, or agonist-specific, desensitization, we investigated the functional consequences of receptor phosphorylation by the kinase and possible analogies with the mechanism of action of rhodopsin kinase. Pure hamster lung beta 2-adrenergic receptor, reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles, was assessed for its ability to mediate agonist-promoted stimulation of the GTPase activity of coreconstituted stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein. When the receptor was phosphorylated by partially (approximately 350-fold) purified preparations of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase, as much as 80% inactivation of its functional activity was observed. However, the use of more highly purified enzyme preparations led to a dramatic decrease in the ability of phosphorylation to inactivate the receptor such that pure enzyme preparations (approximately 20,000-fold purified) caused only minimal (approximately 1off/- 7%) inactivation. Addition of pure retinal arrestin (48-kDa protein or S antigen), which is involved in enhancing the inactivating effect of rhodopsin phosphorylation by rhodopsin kinase, led to partial restoration of the functional effect of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-promoted phosphorylation (41 +/- 3% inactivation). These results suggest the possibility that a protein analogous to retinal arrestin may exist in other tissues and function in concert with beta-adrenergic receptor kinase to regulate the activity of adenylate cyclase-coupled receptors.
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
In Vitro Techniques
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta
beta-Adrenergic Receptor Kinases
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James B. Duke Distinguished Professor of Cell Biology
Studies of the mechanisms of action and regulation of hormones and neurotransmitters at the cellular and molecular levels constitute the main goals our of research activities. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) mediate the actions of signaling molecules from unicellular organisms to man. We have used adrenergic and dopamine receptors to characterize the structure/function and regulation mechanisms of these prototypes of G protein-coupled receptors. Another approach has been to characterize
James B. Duke Distinguished Professor of Medicine
Dr. Lefkowitz’s memoir, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to Stockholm, recounts his early career as a cardiologist and his transition to biochemistry, which led to his Nobel Prize win. Robert J. Lefkowitz, M.D. is James B. Duke Professor of Medicine and Professor of Biochemistry and Chemistry at the Duke University Medical Center. He has been an Investigator of the
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