Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase: identification of a novel protein kinase that phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the receptor.
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Agonist-promoted desensitization of adenylate cyclase is intimately associated with phosphorylation of the beta-adrenergic receptor in mammalian, avian, and amphibian cells. However, the nature of the protein kinase(s) involved in receptor phosphorylation remains largely unknown. We report here the identification and partial purification of a protein kinase capable of phosphorylating the agonist-occupied form of the purified beta-adrenergic receptor. The enzyme is prepared from a supernatant fraction from high-speed centrifugation of lysed kin- cells, a mutant of S49 lymphoma cells that lacks a functional cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The beta-agonist isoproterenol induces a 5- to 10-fold increase in receptor phosphorylation by this kinase, which is blocked by the antagonist alprenolol. Fractionation of the kin- supernatant on molecular-sieve HPLC and DEAE-Sephacel results in a 50- to 100-fold purified beta-adrenergic receptor kinase preparation that is largely devoid of other protein kinase activities. The kinase activity is insensitive to cAMP, cGMP, cAMP-dependent kinase inhibitor, Ca2+-calmodulin, Ca2+-phospholipid, and phorbol esters and does not phosphorylate general kinase substrates such as casein and histones. Phosphate appears to be incorporated solely into serine residues. The existence of this novel cAMP-independent kinase, which preferentially phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic receptor, suggests a mechanism that may explain the homologous or agonist-specific form of adenylate cyclase desensitization. It also suggests a general mechanism for regulation of receptor function in which only the agonist-occupied or "active" form of the receptor is a substrate for enzymes inducing covalent modification.
G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 1
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta
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James B. Duke Distinguished Professor of Cell Biology
Studies of the mechanisms of action and regulation of hormones and neurotransmitters at the cellular and molecular levels constitute the main goals our of research activities. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) mediate the actions of signaling molecules from unicellular organisms to man. We have used adrenergic and dopamine receptors to characterize the structure/function and regulation mechanisms of these prototypes of G protein-coupled receptors. Another approach has been to characterize
James B. Duke Distinguished Professor of Medicine
The focus of work in this laboratory is on the elucidation of the molecular properties and regulatory mechanisms controlling the function of G protein-coupled receptors. As model systems we utilize the so called adrenergic receptors for adrenaline and related molecules. The goal is to learn the general principles of signal transduction from the outside to the inside of the cell which are involved in systems as diverse as sensory perception, neuro- transmitter and hormonal signaling. Stud
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