Irisin and FNDC5 in retrospect: An exercise hormone or a transmembrane receptor?
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FNDC5 (fibronectin domain-containing [protein] 5) was initially discovered and characterized by two groups in 2002. In 2011 FNDC5 burst into prominence as the parent of irisin, a small protein containing the fibronectin type III domain. Irisin was proposed to be secreted by skeletal muscle cells in response to exercise, and to circulate to fat tissue where it induced a transition to brown fat. Since brown fat results in dissipation of energy, this pathway is of considerable interest for metabolism and obesity. Here I review the original discoveries of FNDC5 and the more recent discovery of irisin. I note in particular three problems in the characterization of irisin: the antibodies used to detect irisin in plasma lack validity; the recombinant protein used to demonstrate activity in cell culture was severely truncated; and the degree of shedding of soluble irisin from the cell surface has not been quantitated. The original discovery proposing that FNDC5 may be a transmembrane receptor may deserve a new look.
Published Version (Please cite this version)10.4161/adip.26082
Publication InfoErickson, Harold Paul (2013). Irisin and FNDC5 in retrospect: An exercise hormone or a transmembrane receptor?. Adipocyte, 2(4). pp. 289-293. 10.4161/adip.26082. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10161/9280.
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James B. Duke Professor of Cell Biology
Cytoskeleton: It is now clear that the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton originated in bacteria. Our major research is on FtsZ, the bacterial tubulin homolog, which assembles into a contractile ring that divides the bacterium. We have studied FtsZ assembly in vitro, and found that it assembles into thin protofilaments (pfs). Dozens of these pfs are further clustered to form the contractile Z-ring in vivo. Some important discoveries in the last ten years include: &bul