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Early social exposure in wild chimpanzees: mothers with sons are more gregarious than mothers with daughters.

dc.contributor.author Murray, Carson M
dc.contributor.author Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V
dc.contributor.author Stanton, Margaret A
dc.contributor.author Wellens, Kaitlin R
dc.contributor.author Miller, Jordan A
dc.contributor.author Goodall, Jane
dc.contributor.author Pusey, Anne E
dc.coverage.spatial United States
dc.date.accessioned 2014-12-03T16:39:51Z
dc.date.issued 2014-12-23
dc.identifier http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25422411
dc.identifier 1409507111
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/10161/9282
dc.description.abstract In many mammals, early social experience is critical to developing species-appropriate adult behaviors. Although mother-infant interactions play an undeniably significant role in social development, other individuals in the social milieu may also influence infant outcomes. Additionally, the social skills necessary for adult success may differ between the sexes. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), adult males are more gregarious than females and rely on a suite of competitive and cooperative relationships to obtain access to females. In fission-fusion species, including humans and chimpanzees, subgroup composition is labile and individuals can vary the number of individuals with whom they associate. Thus, mothers in these species have a variety of social options. In this study, we investigated whether wild chimpanzee maternal subgrouping patterns differed based on infant sex. Our results show that mothers of sons were more gregarious than mothers of daughters; differences were especially pronounced during the first 6 mo of life, when infant behavior is unlikely to influence maternal subgrouping. Furthermore, mothers with sons spent significantly more time in parties containing males during the first 6 mo. These early differences foreshadow the well-documented sex differences in adult social behavior, and maternal gregariousness may provide sons with important observational learning experiences and social exposure early in life. The presence of these patterns in chimpanzees raises questions concerning the evolutionary history of differential social exposure and its role in shaping sex-typical behavior in humans.
dc.language eng
dc.publisher Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
dc.relation.ispartof Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
dc.relation.isversionof 10.1073/pnas.1409507111
dc.subject chimpanzees
dc.subject fission–fusion species
dc.subject infant socialization
dc.subject maternal behavior
dc.subject Animals
dc.subject Animals, Wild
dc.subject Behavior, Animal
dc.subject Female
dc.subject Male
dc.subject Pan troglodytes
dc.subject Social Behavior
dc.title Early social exposure in wild chimpanzees: mothers with sons are more gregarious than mothers with daughters.
dc.type Journal article
duke.contributor.id Pusey, Anne E|0519366
pubs.author-url http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25422411
pubs.begin-page 18189
pubs.end-page 18194
pubs.issue 51
pubs.organisational-group Duke
pubs.organisational-group Evolutionary Anthropology
pubs.organisational-group Trinity College of Arts & Sciences
pubs.publication-status Published
pubs.volume 111
dc.identifier.eissn 1091-6490
duke.contributor.orcid Pusey, Anne E|0000-0002-2280-8954


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