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Two Antarctic penguin genomes reveal insights into their evolutionary history and molecular changes related to the Antarctic environment.

dc.contributor.author Burt, DW
dc.contributor.author Castoe, TA
dc.contributor.author Chen, Y
dc.contributor.author Deng, Y
dc.contributor.author Ellegren, Hans
dc.contributor.author Fujita, MK
dc.contributor.author Gilbert, M Thomas P
dc.contributor.author Greenwold, MJ
dc.contributor.author Gu, W
dc.contributor.author He, W
dc.contributor.author Ho, SY
dc.contributor.author Hu, H
dc.contributor.author Jarvis, Erich David
dc.contributor.author Jin, L
dc.contributor.author Kong, L
dc.contributor.author Lambert, DM
dc.contributor.author Lang, Y
dc.contributor.author Li, C
dc.contributor.author Li, J
dc.contributor.author Li, Q
dc.contributor.author Liu, B
dc.contributor.author Liu, S
dc.contributor.author Meader, S
dc.contributor.author Millar, CD
dc.contributor.author Nam, K
dc.contributor.author Pan, H
dc.contributor.author Pollock, DD
dc.contributor.author Ponting, CP
dc.contributor.author Rands, CM
dc.contributor.author Shi, Q
dc.contributor.author Subramanian, S
dc.contributor.author Wang, J
dc.contributor.author Wang, J
dc.contributor.author Xia, J
dc.contributor.author Xu, L
dc.contributor.author Yang, Huanming
dc.contributor.author Yang, L
dc.contributor.author Yu, H
dc.contributor.author Zhang, G
dc.contributor.author Zhang, Y
dc.contributor.author Zhang, Y
dc.coverage.spatial United States
dc.date.accessioned 2014-12-15T17:51:10Z
dc.date.issued 2014
dc.identifier http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25671092
dc.identifier 56
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10161/9320
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Penguins are flightless aquatic birds widely distributed in the Southern Hemisphere. The distinctive morphological and physiological features of penguins allow them to live an aquatic life, and some of them have successfully adapted to the hostile environments in Antarctica. To study the phylogenetic and population history of penguins and the molecular basis of their adaptations to Antarctica, we sequenced the genomes of the two Antarctic dwelling penguin species, the Adélie penguin [Pygoscelis adeliae] and emperor penguin [Aptenodytes forsteri]. RESULTS: Phylogenetic dating suggests that early penguins arose ~60 million years ago, coinciding with a period of global warming. Analysis of effective population sizes reveals that the two penguin species experienced population expansions from ~1 million years ago to ~100 thousand years ago, but responded differently to the climatic cooling of the last glacial period. Comparative genomic analyses with other available avian genomes identified molecular changes in genes related to epidermal structure, phototransduction, lipid metabolism, and forelimb morphology. CONCLUSIONS: Our sequencing and initial analyses of the first two penguin genomes provide insights into the timing of penguin origin, fluctuations in effective population sizes of the two penguin species over the past 10 million years, and the potential associations between these biological patterns and global climate change. The molecular changes compared with other avian genomes reflect both shared and diverse adaptations of the two penguin species to the Antarctic environment.
dc.language eng
dc.relation.ispartof Gigascience
dc.relation.isversionof 10.1186/2047-217X-3-27
dc.subject Adaptation
dc.subject Antarctica
dc.subject Avian genomics
dc.subject Evolution
dc.subject Penguins
dc.title Two Antarctic penguin genomes reveal insights into their evolutionary history and molecular changes related to the Antarctic environment.
dc.type Journal article
pubs.author-url http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25671092
pubs.begin-page 27
pubs.issue 1
pubs.organisational-group Basic Science Departments
pubs.organisational-group Duke
pubs.organisational-group Duke Institute for Brain Sciences
pubs.organisational-group Institutes and Provost's Academic Units
pubs.organisational-group Neurobiology
pubs.organisational-group School of Medicine
pubs.organisational-group University Institutes and Centers
pubs.publication-status Published online
pubs.volume 3


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