Essays in Financial Econometrics
The main goal of this work is to explore the effects of time-varying extreme jump tail dependencies in asset markets. Consequently, a lot of attention has been devoted to understand the extremal tail dependencies between of assets. As pointed by Hansen (2013), the estimation of tail risks dependence is a challenging task and their implications in several sectors of the economy are of great importance. One of the principal challenges is to provide a measure systemic risks that is, in principle, statistically tractable and has an economic meaning. Therefore, there is a need of a standardize dependence measures or at least to provide a methodology that can capture the complexity behind global distress in the economy. These measures should be able to explain not only the dynamics of the most recent financial crisis but also the prior events of distress in the world economy, which is the motivation of this paper. In order to explore the tail dependencies I exploit the information embedded in option prices and intra-daily high frequency data.
The first chapter, a co-authored work with Andrew Patton, proposes a new class of dynamic copula models for daily asset returns that exploits information from high frequency (intra-daily) data. We augment the generalized autoregressive score (GAS) model of Creal, et al. (2013) with high frequency measures such as realized correlation to obtain a "GRAS" model. We find that the inclusion of realized measures significantly improves the in-sample fit of dynamic copula models across a range of U.S. equity returns. Moreover, we find that out-of-sample density forecasts from our GRAS models are superior to those from simpler models. Finally, we consider a simple portfolio choice problem to illustrate the economic gains from exploiting high frequency data for modeling dynamic dependence.
In the second chapter using information from option prices I construct two new measures of dependence between assets and industries, the Jump Tail Implied Correlation and the Tail Correlation Risk Premia. The main contribution in this chapter is the construction of a systemic risk factor from daily financial measures using a quantile-regression-based methodology. In this direction, I fill the existing gap between downturns in the financial sector and the real economy. I find that this new index performs well to forecast in-sample and out-of-sample quarterly macroeconomic shocks. In addition, I analyze whether the tail risk of the correlation may be priced. I find that for the S&P500 and its sectors there is an ex ante premium to hedge against systemic risks and changes in the aggregate market correlation. Moreover, I provide evidence that the tails of the implied correlation have remarkable predictive power for future stock market returns.
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