Incidence, Characteristics, and Outcomes of Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease: Insights From the EUCLID Trial.


Importance:Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at high risk for myocardial infarction (MI). Objective:To characterize the incidence and types of MI in a PAD population, identify factors associated with MI, and determine the association of MI with cardiovascular mortality and acute limb ischemia. Design, Setting, and Participants:The Study Comparing Cardiovascular Effects of Ticagrelor and Clopidogrel in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease (EUCLID) was a double-blind randomized clinical trial conducted at 811 sites in 28 countries that randomized 13 885 patients with symptomatic PAD to monotherapy with ticagrelor or clopidogrel. Participants had an ankle-brachial index (ABI) of 0.80 or less or previous lower extremity revascularization. Median follow-up was 30 months. For these analyses, patients were evaluated for MI occurrence during follow-up irrespective of treatment. Data were analyzed from June 2017 to September 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures:An adjudication clinical events committee classified MI as type 1 (spontaneous), type 2 (secondary), type 3 (sudden cardiac death), type 4a (less than 48 hours after percutaneous coronary intervention), type 4b (definite stent thrombosis), or type 5 (less than 72 hours after coronary artery bypass graft). A multivariate regression model was developed by stepwise selection to identify factors associated with MI, and a time-dependent multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to determine the association of MI with cardiovascular death and acute limb ischemia requiring hospitalization. Results:Of the 13 885 patients included in this analysis, 9997 (72.0%) were male, and the median (interquartile range) age was 66 (60-73) years. Myocardial infarction occurred in 683 patients (4.9%; 2.4 events per 100 patient-years) during a median follow-up of 30 months. Patients experiencing MI were older (median [interquartile range] age, 69 [62-75] vs 66 [60-72] years), more likely to have diabetes (349 of 683 [51.1%] vs 4996 of 13 202 [37.8%]) or a previous lower extremity revascularization (466 of 683 [68.2%] vs 7409 of 13 202 [56.1%]), and had a lower ABI (if included by ABI) compared with censored patients. Of the 683 patients with MI during follow-up, the most common MI type was type 1 (405 [59.3%]), followed by type 2 (236 [34.6%]), type 4a (14 [2.0%]), type 3 (12 [1.8%]), type 4b (11 [1.6%]), and type 5 (5 [0.7%]). Postrandomization MI was independently associated with cardiovascular death (adjusted hazard ratio, 9.0; 95% CI, 7.3-11.2; P < .001) and acute limb ischemia requiring hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3-5.0; P = .008). Conclusions and Relevance:Approximately 5% of patients with symptomatic PAD had an MI during a median follow-up of 30 months. Type 1 MI (spontaneous) was the most common MI type; however, one-third of MIs were type 2 MI (secondary). More research is needed to identify therapies to reduce the risk of MI in patients with PAD and to improve management of type 2 MI. Trial Identifier: NCT01732822.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Olivier, Christoph B, Hillary Mulder, William R Hiatt, W Schuyler Jones, F Gerry R Fowkes, Frank W Rockhold, Jeffrey S Berger, Iris Baumgartner, et al. (2019). Incidence, Characteristics, and Outcomes of Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease: Insights From the EUCLID Trial. JAMA cardiology, 4(1). pp. 7–15. 10.1001/jamacardio.2018.4171 Retrieved from

This is constructed from limited available data and may be imprecise. To cite this article, please review & use the official citation provided by the journal.



William Schuyler Jones

Associate Professor of Medicine

I am an interventional cardiologist with a specific focus on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease. As a clinician, I see patients in the office and do coronary and peripheral vascular procedures (angiography and interventions) in the Duke Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory. I have served as the Medical Director of the cath lab at Duke since 2016. Alongside my partners in the cath lab, we collaborate with our cardiothoracic surgeons to hold Heart Team meetings each week, and we frequently are asked to address complex cardiovascular issues as a multidisciplinary team.

I also have a broad background in cardiovascular site-based research, multicenter clinical trials, clinical event classification, and observational analyses. I have helped to lead clinical trial efforts at the Duke Clinical Research Institute (DCRI) by designing and conducting studies evaluating new and existing treatments for patients with coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease. My specific research interests include examining access to care and disparities in care for patients with peripheral artery disease and the design and conduct of pragmatic clinical trials in cardiovascular disease.


Frank Wesley Rockhold

Professor of Biostatistics & Bioinformatics

Frank is a full time Professor of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics and Faculty Director for Biostatistics at Duke University Medical Center, Affiliate Professor of Biostatistics at Virginia Commonwealth University, and Strategic Consultant at Hunter Rockhold, Inc.  His 40+-year career includes senior research positions at Lilly, Merck, and GlaxoSmithKline, where he retired as Chief Safety Officer and Senior Vice President of Global Clinical Safety and Pharmacovigilance.  He has held faculty appointments at six different universities.    Dr. Rockhold served for 9 years on the board of directors of the non-profit CDISC, most recently as Chairman, and is past president of the Society for Clinical Trials and a past member of the PCORI Clinical Trials Advisory Panel. He is currently Chair of the Board of the Frontier Science and Technology Research Foundation and a technical advisor to EMA.

Dr. Rockhold has diverse research interests and consulting experience in industry and academia including clinical trials design, data monitoring, benefit/risk, safety and pharmacovigilance and has been a leader in the scientific community in promoting data disclosure and transparency in clinical research.    Frank is widely published in major scientific journals across a wide variety of research topics.

Frank holds a BA in Statistics from The University of Connecticut, an ScM in Biostatistics from The Johns Hopkins University, and a PhD in Biostatistics from the Medical College of Virginia at Virginia Commonwealth University. Frank is an Elected Fellow of both the American Statistical Association and the Society for Clinical Trials, a Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society, an Accredited Professional Statistician, PStat®, and a Chartered Statistician, CStat.  


Manesh Raman Patel

Richard Sean Stack, M.D. Distinguished Professor

Manesh Patel is the Chief of the Division of Cardiology and the Division of Clinical Pharmacology.  His clinical interests include diagnostic and interventional coronary angiography, peripheral angiography and endovascular intervention.  His is involved in several clinical trials involving patients with cardiovascular disease and in cardiac imaging.  He is also the Chair of the American College of Cardiology Task Force for Appropriate Use Criteria for Cardiovascular Procedures and is Chair of the American Heart Association Diagnostic and Interventional Cath Committee.

Patel's interest in cardiac imaging, quality of care, cardiac devices is also evident in his research.  His integration of these efforts into his roles at Duke was recognized in 2010 when he received the prestigious Duke Cardiology Fellowship Mentor Award.   In 2011, Dr. Patel was named the endowed John Bush Simpson Assistant Professor of Cardiology.  In 2013, Dr. Patel received the Robert M. Califf Faculty clinical research Award.

Currently, Dr. Patel is leading an effort to redesign the delivery of care to patients undergoing invasive catheterization procedures in the health system with a specific aim of measure and providing individualized, patient centered, innovative, and efficient care.

Unless otherwise indicated, scholarly articles published by Duke faculty members are made available here with a CC-BY-NC (Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial) license, as enabled by the Duke Open Access Policy. If you wish to use the materials in ways not already permitted under CC-BY-NC, please consult the copyright owner. Other materials are made available here through the author’s grant of a non-exclusive license to make their work openly accessible.