Stroke in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease.


Background and Purpose- Predictors of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are poorly understood. The primary aims of this analysis were to (1) determine the incidence of ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke and TIA in patients with symptomatic PAD, (2) identify predictors of stroke in patients with PAD, and (3) compare the rate of stroke in ticagrelor- and clopidogrel-treated patients. Methods- EUCLID (Examining Use of Ticagrelor in Peripheral Artery Disease) randomized 13 885 patients with symptomatic PAD to receive monotherapy with ticagrelor or clopidogrel for the prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke). Ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke and TIA were adjudicated and measured as incidence rates postrandomization and cumulative incidence (per patient-years). Post hoc multivariable competing risk hazards analyses were performed using baseline characteristics to determine factors associated with all-cause stroke in patients with PAD. Results- A total of 458 cerebrovascular events in 424 patients (317 ischemic strokes, 39 hemorrhagic strokes, and 102 TIAs) occurred over a median follow-up of 30 months, for a cumulative incidence of 0.87, 0.11, and 0.27 per 100 patient-years, respectively. Age, prior stroke, prior atrial fibrillation/flutter, diabetes mellitus, geographic region, ankle-brachial index <0.60, prior amputation, and systolic blood pressure were independent baseline factors associated with the occurrence of all-cause stroke. After adjustment for baseline factors, the rates of ischemic stroke and all-cause stroke remained lower in patients treated with ticagrelor as compared with those receiving clopidogrel. There was no significant difference in the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke or TIA between the 2 treatment groups. Conclusions- In patients with symptomatic PAD, ischemic stroke and TIA occur frequently over time. Comorbidities such as age, prior stroke, prior atrial fibrillation/flutter, diabetes mellitus, higher blood pressure, prior amputation, lower ankle-brachial index, and geographic region were each independently associated with the occurrence of all-cause stroke. Use of ticagrelor, as compared with clopidogrel, was associated with a lower adjusted rate of ischemic and all-cause stroke. Further study is needed to optimize medical management and risk reduction of all-cause stroke in patients with PAD. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: . Unique identifier: NCT01732822.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Kolls, Brad J, Shelly Sapp, Frank W Rockhold, J Dedrick Jordan, Keith E Dombrowski, F Gerry R Fowkes, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Jeffrey S Berger, et al. (2019). Stroke in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease. Stroke. p. STROKEAHA118023534. 10.1161/strokeaha.118.023534 Retrieved from

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Bradley Jason Kolls

Associate Professor of Neurology

As a neurointensivist, I am interested in improving our ability to monitor brain function and impact of therapy on our patients in the critical care setting. To this end I am developing new approaches to patient monitoring that will integrate patient physiologic monitoring with brain activity recorded by electroencephalography (EEG). On the basic science side I am interested in the central nervous system's response to injury. Although much attention has been focused on closed head injury as of late, stroke and brain hemorrhage are just as common in the civilian population and pose many of the same clinical challenges as traumatic brain injury. Using mouse models of clinically relevant brain injury, including models of stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, lobar hemorrhage, closed head injury and penetrating brain injury, we can explore the key molecular events that lead to edema, secondary brain injury, hyperexcitability and epilepsy, and other sequelae which contribute to poor patient recovery, and significant morbidity following brain injury. By investigating the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these adaptive changes using electrophysiology and molecular biology approaches we can then find ways to prevent them from becoming maladaptive and develop new therapies for our patients with head injuries.


Frank Wesley Rockhold

Professor of Biostatistics & Bioinformatics

Frank is a full time Professor of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics and Faculty Director for Biostatistics at Duke University Medical Center, Affiliate Professor of Biostatistics at Virginia Commonwealth University, and Strategic Consultant at Hunter Rockhold, Inc.  His 40+-year career includes senior research positions at Lilly, Merck, and GlaxoSmithKline, where he retired as Chief Safety Officer and Senior Vice President of Global Clinical Safety and Pharmacovigilance.  He has held faculty appointments at six different universities.    Dr. Rockhold served for 9 years on the board of directors of the non-profit CDISC, most recently as Chairman, and is past president of the Society for Clinical Trials and a past member of the PCORI Clinical Trials Advisory Panel. He is currently Chair of the Board of the Frontier Science and Technology Research Foundation and a technical advisor to EMA.

Dr. Rockhold has diverse research interests and consulting experience in industry and academia including clinical trials design, data monitoring, benefit/risk, safety and pharmacovigilance and has been a leader in the scientific community in promoting data disclosure and transparency in clinical research.    Frank is widely published in major scientific journals across a wide variety of research topics.

Frank holds a BA in Statistics from The University of Connecticut, an ScM in Biostatistics from The Johns Hopkins University, and a PhD in Biostatistics from the Medical College of Virginia at Virginia Commonwealth University. Frank is an Elected Fellow of both the American Statistical Association and the Society for Clinical Trials, a Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society, an Accredited Professional Statistician, PStat®, and a Chartered Statistician, CStat.  

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