Novel hybrid action of GABA mediates inhibitory feedback in the mammalian retina.
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The stream of visual information sent from photoreceptors to second-order bipolar cells is intercepted by laterally interacting horizontal cells that generate feedback to optimize and improve the efficiency of signal transmission. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of graded photoreceptor synaptic output in this nonspiking network have remained elusive. Here, we analyze with patch clamp recording the novel mechanisms by which horizontal cells control pH in the synaptic cleft to modulate photoreceptor neurotransmitter release. First, we show that mammalian horizontal cells respond to their own GABA release and that the results of this autaptic action affect cone voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (CaV channel) gating through changes in pH. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate that chemogenetic manipulation of horizontal cells with exogenous anion channel expression mimics GABA-mediated cone CaV channel inhibition. Activation of these GABA receptor anion channels can depolarize horizontal cells and increase cleft acidity via Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) proton extrusion, which results in inhibition of cone CaV channels. This action is effectively counteracted when horizontal cells are sufficiently hyperpolarized by increased GABA receptor (GABAR)-mediated HCO3- efflux, alkalinizing the cleft and disinhibiting cone CaV channels. This demonstrates how hybrid actions of GABA operate in parallel to effect voltage-dependent pH changes, a novel mechanism for regulating synaptic output.
Published Version (Please cite this version)
Grove, James CR, Arlene A Hirano, Janira de Los Santos, Cyrus F McHugh, Shashvat Purohit, Greg D Field, Nicholas C Brecha, Steven Barnes, et al. (2019). Novel hybrid action of GABA mediates inhibitory feedback in the mammalian retina. PLoS biology, 17(4). p. e3000200. 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000200 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/22489.
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My laboratory studies how the retina processes visual scenes and transmits this information to the brain. We use multi-electrode arrays to record the activity of hundreds of retina neurons simultaneously in conjunction with transgenic mouse lines and chemogenetics to manipulate neural circuit function. We are interested in three major areas. First, we work to understand how neurons in the retina are functionally connected. Second we are studying how light-adaptation and circadian rhythms alter visual processing in the retina. Finally, we are working to understand the mechanisms of retinal degenerative conditions and we are investigating potential treatments in animal models.
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