Exercise-induced changes in metabolic intermediates, hormones, and inflammatory markers associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity.

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Huffman, Kim M
Slentz, Cris A
Bateman, Lori A
Thompson, Dana
Muehlbauer, Michael J
Bain, James R
Stevens, Robert D
Wenner, Brett R
Kraus, Virginia Byers
Newgard, Christopher B

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OBJECTIVE: To understand relationships between exercise training-mediated improvements in insulin sensitivity (S(I)) and changes in circulating concentrations of metabolic intermediates, hormones, and inflammatory mediators. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Targeted mass spectrometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to quantify metabolic intermediates, hormones, and inflammatory markers at baseline, after 6 months of exercise training, and 2 weeks after exercise training cessation (n = 53). A principal components analysis (PCA) strategy was used to relate changes in these intermediates to changes in S(I). RESULTS: PCA reduced the number of intermediates from 90 to 24 factors composed of biologically related components. With exercise training, improvements in S(I) were associated with reductions in by-products of fatty acid oxidation and increases in glycine and proline (P < 0.05, R² = 0.59); these relationships were retained 15 days after cessation of exercise training (P < 0.05, R² = 0.34). CONCLUSIONS: These observations support prior observations in animal models that exercise training promotes more efficient mitochondrial β-oxidation and challenges current hypotheses regarding exercise training and glycine metabolism.


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Biomarkers, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Exercise, Female, Hormones, Humans, Inflammation, Male, Middle Aged, Principal Component Analysis


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Huffman, Kim M, Cris A Slentz, Lori A Bateman, Dana Thompson, Michael J Muehlbauer, James R Bain, Robert D Stevens, Brett R Wenner, et al. (2011). Exercise-induced changes in metabolic intermediates, hormones, and inflammatory markers associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity. Diabetes Care, 34(1). pp. 174–176. 10.2337/dc10-0709 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/10882.

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Kim Marie Huffman

Associate Professor of Medicine

Determining the role of physical activity in modulating health outcomes (cardiovascular disease risk) in persons with rheumatologic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoarthritis)

Integrating clinical rheumatology, basic immunology, metabolism, and exercise science in order to reduce morbidity in individuals with arthritis

Evaluating relationships between circulating and intra-muscular metabolic intermediates and insulin resistance in sedentary as well as individuals engaging in regular exercise

Addressing the role of physical activity in modulating inflammation, metabolism, and functional health in aging populations


James R. Bain

Professor in Medicine

Robert David Stevens

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Medicine

Christopher Bang Newgard

W. David and Sarah W. Stedman Distinguished Professor of Nutrition in the School of Medicine

Over its 16 year history, our laboratory has investigated mechanisms of metabolic regulation and fuel homeostasis in mammalian systems. Major projects include: 1) Mechanisms involved in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic islet β-cells by glucose and other metabolic fuels; 2) Development of methods for protection of β-cells against immune-mediated damage; 3) Studies on spatial organization and regulation of systems controlling hepatic glucose balance; 4) Studies on the mechanisms involved in lipid-induced impairment of insulin secretion and action in diabetes.

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