Mainstreaming Ecosystem Services in National Adaptation Planning

Thumbnail Image



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Repository Usage Stats



Developing countries are starting the process of planning for climate change adaptation at the national level. One of the options available is ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA), which recognizes the value of ecosystem services and biodiversity for reducing people’s vulnerability to climate change. The effectiveness of EbA is increasingly recognized and EbA options have been used by least-developed countries but only timidly. This research analyses the use of EbA in 18 national adaptation plans produced by a representative sample of developing countries across the globe. It found that all plans proposed at least some EbA measures, mostly in the coastal sector, followed by the water sector, the agriculture sector, and finally the urban sector. The extent to which EbA is used in these different sectors appears to follow the state of the literature. EbA is recognized in these plans for providing many ecosystem services linked to reduced vulnerability to climate change. Moving forward, evidence on effectiveness should be developed for the agriculture, water, urban, and to a lesser extent coastal sector. Financing of EbA should be increased for implementation, and co-benefits emphasizing the cross-cutting nature of EbA should be incorporated in the development of national plans.





Adrien Comte (2014). Mainstreaming Ecosystem Services in National Adaptation Planning. Master's project, Duke University. Retrieved from

Dukes student scholarship is made available to the public using a Creative Commons Attribution / Non-commercial / No derivative (CC-BY-NC-ND) license.