Defining and Improving Outcomes Measurement for Virtual Care: Report from the VHA State-of-the-Art Conference on Virtual Care.


Virtual care, including synchronous and asynchronous telehealth, remote patient monitoring, and the collection and interpretation of patient-generated health data (PGHD), has the potential to transform healthcare delivery and increase access to care. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Office of Health Services Research and Development (HSR&D) convened a State-of-the-Art (SOTA) Conference on Virtual Care to identify future virtual care research priorities. Participants were divided into three workgroups focused on virtual care access, engagement, and outcomes. In this article, we report the findings of the Outcomes Workgroup. The group identified virtual care outcome areas with sufficient evidence, areas in need of additional research, and areas that are particularly well-suited to be studied within VHA. Following a rigorous process of literature review and consensus, the group focused on four questions: (1) What outcomes of virtual care should we be measuring and how should we measure them?; (2) how do we choose the "right" care modality for the "right" patient?; (3) what are potential consequences of virtual care on patient safety?; and (4) how can PGHD be used to benefit provider decision-making and patient self-management?. The current article outlines key conclusions that emerged following discussion of these questions, including recommendations for future research.






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Publication Info

Connolly, Samantha L, Scott E Sherman, Navid Dardashti, Elizabeth Duran, Hayden B Bosworth, Michael E Charness, Terry J Newton, Ashok Reddy, et al. (2024). Defining and Improving Outcomes Measurement for Virtual Care: Report from the VHA State-of-the-Art Conference on Virtual Care. Journal of general internal medicine. 10.1007/s11606-023-08464-1 Retrieved from

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Leah L Zullig

Professor in Population Health Sciences

Leah L. Zullig, PhD, MPH is a health services researcher and an implementation scientist. She is a Professor in the Duke Department of Population Health Sciences and an investigator with the Center of Innovation to Accelerate Discovery and Practice Transformation (ADAPT) at the Durham Veterans Affairs Health Care System. Dr. Zullig’s overarching research interests address three domains: improving cancer care delivery and quality; promoting cancer survivorship and chronic disease management; and improving medication adherence. Throughout these three area of foci Dr. Zullig uses an implementation science lens with the goal of providing equitable care for all by implementing evidence-based practices in a variety of health care environments. She has authored over 150 peer-reviewed publications. 

Dr. Zullig completed her BS in Health Promotion, her MPH in Public Health Administration, and her PhD in Health Policy.

Areas of expertise: Implementation Science, Health Measurement, Health Policy, Health Behavior, Telehealth, and Health Services Research

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